Couponing As A Horizontal And Vertical Strategy: Theory And Effects
This paper surveys developments in analytical models and empirical findings concerning the strategic use of manufacturers' coupons for U.S. grocery products. Traditional theories examine the horizontal effects of coupons as a strategy to charge various classes of consumers different prices. Recent developments focus on the use of coupons in manufacturer-retailer vertical competition. The paper provides data on trends in couponing: numbers, face values, redemption rates, total promotional costs, and international usage. The paper further analyses the effective price discounts provided by coupons across brands and segments of ready-to-eat cereals during 1992-1995.
|Date of creation:||1997|
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- John M. Connor, 1999.
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