Couponing As A Horizontal And Vertical Strategy: Theory And Effects
This paper surveys developments in analytical models and empirical findings concerning the strategic use of manufacturers' coupons for U.S. grocery products. Traditional theories examine the horizontal effects of coupons as a strategy to charge various classes of consumers different prices. Recent developments focus on the use of coupons in manufacturer-retailer vertical competition. The paper provides data on trends in couponing: numbers, face values, redemption rates, total promotional costs, and international usage. The paper further analyses the effective price discounts provided by coupons across brands and segments of ready-to-eat cereals during 1992-1995.
|Date of creation:||1997|
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- Chakravarthi Narasimhan, 1984. "A Price Discrimination Theory of Coupons," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 3(2), pages 128-147.
- Gerstner, Eitan & Hess, James D, 1991. "A Theory of Channel Price Promotions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 872-86, September.
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12, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
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- Ronald W. Cotterill, 1996. "High Cereal Prices and the Prospects for Relief by Expansion of Private Label and Antitrust Enforcement," Issue Papers 11, University of Connecticut, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Charles J. Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy.
- Pashigian, B Peter, 1988. "Demand Uncertainty and Sales: A Study of Fashion and Markdown Pricin g," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 936-53, December.
- Caminal, Ramon, 1996. "Price Advertising and Coupons in a Monopoly Model," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 33-52, March.
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