IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Cointegration Analysis of Regional House Prices in U.S

  • Zohrabyan, Tatevik
  • Leatham, David J.
  • Bessler, David A.

Using quarterly U.S. census division data for time period 1975-2006, this paper investigates the dynamic relationships among the house prices of nine divisions (regions): Pacific, Mountain, South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic, New England, East South Central, West South Central, West North Central, and East North Central. Johansen’s ML procedure is applied to shed light on the short-run and long-run components on the error correction model. Furthermore, a symmetric error-correction model is estimated followed by the contemporaneous causality structure that is provided by the directed acyclic graphs. The latter is used as an “input” for estimating the impulse response functions along with the forecast error variance decompositions. The results provide evidence of the presence of large number of cointegration relations between the regional house prices in the US. Moreover, in most cases, West North Central and New England appear to strongly and positively lead the house price changes in most other regions. The statement holds for Middle Atlantic which actually generates negative responses. On the other hand, house prices in East North Central and Mountain are highly influenced by changes in house prices of other regions. These results mostly hold for the dynamic period or from time horizon 0 (contemporaneous) to 35 (8.5 years). Furthermore, the real estate market in the US appears to be mainly led by regions that are influential in many other ways, such as financial, economic, etc.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Regional Research Committee NC-1014: Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition in its series Proceedings: 2007 Agricultural and Rural Finance Markets in Transition, October 4-5, 2007, St. Louis, Missouri with number 48138.

in new window

Date of creation: 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:nc1007:48138
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Bourassa, Steven C. & Hamelink, Foort & Hoesli, Martin & MacGregor, Bryan D., 1999. "Defining Housing Submarkets," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 160-183, June.
  2. Cutler, David M & Poterba, James M & Summers, Lawrence H, 1990. "Speculative Dynamics and the Role of Feedback Traders," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 63-68, May.
  3. Thomas M. Supel, 1978. "The U.S. economy in 1977 and 1978," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win.
  4. Charles Himmelberg & Christopher Mayer & Todd Sinai, 2005. "Assessing High House Prices: Bubbles, Fundamentals, and Misperceptions," NBER Working Papers 11643, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Shiller, Robert J, 1990. "Market Volatility and Investor Behavior," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 58-62, May.
  6. McDonald, Ronald & Taylor, Mark P, 1993. "Regional House Prices in Britain: Long-Run Relationships and Short-Run Dynamics," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 40(1), pages 43-55, February.
  7. Henrik Hansen & Søren Johansen, 1999. "Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 2(2), pages 306-333.
  8. Harter-Dreiman, Michelle, 2004. "Drawing inferences about housing supply elasticity from house price responses to income shocks," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 316-337, March.
  9. David C. Wheelock, 2006. "What happens to banks when house prices fall? U.S. regional housing busts of the 1980s and 1990s," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 413-430.
  10. Clapp, John M. & Tirtiroglu, Dogan, 1994. "Positive feedback trading and diffusion of asset price changes: Evidence from housing transactions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 337-355, August.
  11. Frederic S. Mishkin, 1986. "U.S. Macroeconomic Policy and Performance in the 1980s: An Overview," NBER Working Papers 1929, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Tirtiroglu, Dogan, 1992. "Efficiency in housing markets: Temporal and spatial dimensions," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 276-292, September.
  13. David A. Bessler & Alpha Kergna, 2002. "Price Discovery: The Case of Millet in Bamako, Mali," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 11(4), pages 472-502, December.
  14. S. Cook & C. Thomas, 2003. "An alternative approach to examining the ripple effect in UK house prices," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(13), pages 849-851.
  15. Kim, J.W. & Leatham, D.J. & Bessler, D.A., 2007. "REITs' dynamics under structural change with unknown break points," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 37-58, March.
  16. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
  17. Margaret M. McConnell & Patricia C. Mosser & Gabriel Perez Quiros, 1999. "A decomposition of the increased stability of GDP growth," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 5(Aug).
  18. Jonathan McCarthy & Richard Peach, 2004. "Are home prices the next "bubble"?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Dec, pages 1-17.
  19. Jonathan McCarthy & Charles Steindel, 2007. "Housing Activity and Consumer Spending," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 42(2), pages 6-21, April.
  20. Steven Bourassa & Eva Cantoni & Martin Hoesli, 2007. "Spatial Dependence, Housing Submarkets, and House Price Prediction," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 143-160, August.
  21. Juselius, Katarina, 2006. "The Cointegrated VAR Model: Methodology and Applications," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199285679.
  22. J. Bradford De Long & Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers & Robert J. Waldmann, 1989. "Positive Feedback Investment Strategies and Destabilizing Rational Speculation," NBER Working Papers 2880, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Stephen Malpezzi, 1998. "A Simple Error Correction Model of House Prices," Wisconsin-Madison CULER working papers 98-11, University of Wisconsin Center for Urban Land Economic Research.
  24. Edward L. Glaeser & Joseph Gyourko, . "The Impact of Zoning on Housing Affordability," Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers 395, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
  25. Steven Cook, 2005. "Detecting long-run relationships in regional house prices in the UK," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 107-118.
  26. Pieter Omtzigt & Stefano Fachin, 2006. "The Size and Power of Bootstrap and Bartlett-Corrected Tests of Hypotheses on the Cointegrating Vectors," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 41-60.
  27. Bover, Olympia & Muellbauer, John & Murphy, Anthony, 1988. "Housing, Wages and UK Labour Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 268, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  28. Juselius, Katarina & MacDonald, Ronald, 2004. "International parity relationships between the USA and Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 17-34, January.
  29. Mark J. Holmes & Arthur Grimes, 2005. "Is there long-run convergence of regional house prices in the UK?," Working Papers 05_11, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  30. Bourassa, Steven C. & Hoesli, Martin & Peng, Vincent S., 2003. "Do housing submarkets really matter?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 12-28, March.
  31. Enders, Walter & Siklos, Pierre L, 2001. "Cointegration and Threshold Adjustment," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(2), pages 166-76, April.
  32. Bessler, David A. & Yang, Jian, 2003. "The structure of interdependence in international stock markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 261-287, April.
  33. Shiller, Robert J, 1990. "Speculative Prices and Popular Models," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 55-65, Spring.
  34. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:nc1007:48138. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.