Spatial Networks, Labor Supply and Income Dynamics: Evidence from Indonesian Villages
This paper examines the impact of spatial connectivity development on household income growth and non-agriculture labor supply, combining household panel data and village census in Indonesia. Empirical results show that the impacts of the improvement of local road quality in the area (positively correlated with transportation speed) on income growth and the transition to non-agricultural labor markets depends on the distance to economic centers and household education. In particular, post-primary education significantly increases the benefit from the local spatial connectivity improvement in remote areas and labor transition to non-agricultural sectors. Education and local road quality are complementary, mutually increasing income growth and non-agricultural labor income in remote areas. The gain from improvements in local connectivity (measured by the average road quality) depends on village remoteness and initial household-level endowment.
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