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Efficient Likelihold Inference in Nonstationary Univariate Models

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  • Morten Oe. Nielsen

    () (Department of Economics, University of Aarhus, Denmark)

Abstract

Recent literature shows that embedding fractionally integrated time series models with spectral poles at the long-run and/or seasonal frequencies in autoregressive frameworks leads to estimators and test statistics with non-standard limiting distributions that must be simulated on a case-by-case basis. However, we show that by embedding the models in a general I(d) framework the resulting estimators and tests regain all the desirable properties from standard statistical analysis. We derive the time domain maximum likelihood estimator and show that it is consistent, asymptotically normal, and under Gaussianity asymptotically efficient in the sense that it has asymptotic variance equal to the inverse of the Fisher information matrix. The three likelihood based test statistics (Wald, likelihood ratio, and Lagrange multiplier) are asymptotically equivalent and have the usual asymptotic chi-squared distribution and under the additional assumption of Gaussianity they are locally most powerful. In the special case where the dynamics of the model is characterized by a scalar parameter, we show that, in addition, the two-sided tests achieve the Gaussian power envelope of all invariant and unbiased tests, i.e. they are uniformly most powerful invariant unbiased. The finite sample properties of the tests are evaluated by Monte Carlo experiments. In contrast to what might be expected from the literature, the likelihood ratio test is found to outperform the Lagrange multiplier and Wald tests.

Suggested Citation

  • Morten Oe. Nielsen, "undated". "Efficient Likelihold Inference in Nonstationary Univariate Models," Economics Working Papers 2001-8, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
  • Handle: RePEc:aah:aarhec:2001-8
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Bierens, Herman J., 2001. "Complex Unit Roots And Business Cycles: Are They Real?," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(05), pages 962-983, October.
    2. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-836, July.
    3. Elliott, Graham, 1999. "Efficient Tests for a Unit Root When the Initial Observation Is Drawn from Its Unconditional Distribution," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(3), pages 767-783, August.
    4. Perron, Pierre & Rodriguez, Gabriel, 2003. "GLS detrending, efficient unit root tests and structural change," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 1-27, July.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Johansen, Søren & Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard, 2010. "Likelihood inference for a nonstationary fractional autoregressive model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 158(1), pages 51-66, September.
    2. Paulo M.M. Rodrigues & Antonio Rubia & João Valle e Azevedo, 2009. "Finite Sample Performance of Frequency and Time Domain Tests for Seasonal Fractional Integration," Working Papers w200902, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    3. Uwe Hassler & Paulo M.M. Rodrigues & Antonio Rubia, 2016. "Quantile Regression for Long Memory Testing: A Case of Realized Volatility," Journal of Financial Econometrics, Society for Financial Econometrics, vol. 14(4), pages 693-724.
    4. Morten Ørregaard Nielsen & Per Houmann Frederiksen, 2005. "Finite Sample Comparison of Parametric, Semiparametric, and Wavelet Estimators of Fractional Integration," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 405-443.
    5. Morten Ørregaard Nielsen, 2015. "Asymptotics for the Conditional-Sum-of-Squares Estimator in Multivariate Fractional Time-Series Models," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(2), pages 154-188, March.
    6. Fleming, Jeff & Kirby, Chris, 2011. "Long memory in volatility and trading volume," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1714-1726, July.
    7. Martins, Luis F. & Rodrigues, Paulo M.M., 2014. "Testing for persistence change in fractionally integrated models: An application to world inflation rates," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 502-522.
    8. Cavaliere, Giuseppe & Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard & Taylor, A.M. Robert, 2017. "Quasi-maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrap inference in fractional time series models with heteroskedasticity of unknown form," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 198(1), pages 165-188.
    9. Cavaliere, Giuseppe & Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard & Taylor, A.M. Robert, 2015. "Bootstrap score tests for fractional integration in heteroskedastic ARFIMA models, with an application to price dynamics in commodity spot and futures markets," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 187(2), pages 557-579.
    10. Krzysztof Brania & Henryk Gurgul, 2015. "The impact of estimation methods and data frequency on the results of long memory assessment," Managerial Economics, AGH University of Science and Technology, vol. 16(1), pages 7-37, January.
    11. Haldrup Niels & Nielsen Morten Ø., 2006. "Directional Congestion and Regime Switching in a Long Memory Model for Electricity Prices," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(3), pages 1-24, September.
    12. Haldrup, Niels & Nielsen, Morten Orregaard, 2006. "A regime switching long memory model for electricity prices," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 135(1-2), pages 349-376.
    13. Nielsen M.O., 2004. "Optimal Residual-Based Tests for Fractional Cointegration and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 331-345, July.
    14. Bardet Jean-Marc & Dola Béchir, 2016. "Semiparametric Stationarity and Fractional Unit Roots Tests Based on Data-Driven Multidimensional Increment Ratio Statistics," Journal of Time Series Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 115-153, July.
    15. Shao, Xiaofeng & Wu, Wei Biao, 2007. "Local asymptotic powers of nonparametric and semiparametric tests for fractional integration," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 251-261, February.
    16. Per Frederiksen & Frank S. Nielsen, 2008. "Estimation of Dynamic Models with Nonparametric Simulated Maximum Likelihood," CREATES Research Papers 2008-59, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fractional Integration; Nonstationarity; Likelihood Inference; Efficient Estimation; Optimal Tests; Limiting Power; Small Sample Power;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

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