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A distributional analysis of social group inequality in rural India

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  • Mehtabul Azam

Abstract

This paper examines the differences in welfare, as measured by per capita expenditure (PCE), between social groups in rural India across the entire welfare distribution. The paper establishes that the disadvantage suffered by two historically disadvantaged groups – Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) – is underestimated when the comparison group is Non-SCs/STs rather than general category (mostly higher castes). The ST households are the most disadvantaged followed by the SC and the Other Backward Caste households with respect to general category households, and the disadvantage exists across the entire distribution. Better covariates and better returns to those covariates contribute to the advantage of the general category households. The findings suggest that the policies to raise the human capital and strengthening the other productive assets of the SC and the ST households must remain a focus of attention besides promoting a more active labor market in rural India.[IZA DP No. 3973]
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  • Mehtabul Azam, 2012. "A distributional analysis of social group inequality in rural India," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(4), pages 415-432, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:24:y:2012:i:4:p:415-432
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    3. Chandan Sharma & Sudharshan Reddy Paramati, 2018. "Measuring Inequality of Opportunity for the Backward Communities: Regional Evidence from the Indian Labour Market," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 138(2), pages 479-503, July.
    4. Arabsheibani, Gholamreza & Gupta, Prashant & Mishra, Tapas & Parhi, Mamata, 2018. "Wage differential between caste groups: Are younger and older cohorts different?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 10-23.
    5. Soumyajit Chakraborty & Alok K. Bohara, 2021. "The Cost of Being ‘Backward’ in India: Socio-religious Discrimination in the Labour Market," Indian Journal of Human Development, , vol. 15(2), pages 252-274, August.
    6. R Vaidehi & A Bheemeshwar Reddy & Sudatta Banerjee, 2021. "Explaining Caste-based Digital Divide in India," Papers 2106.15917, arXiv.org.
    7. Menuka Karki & Alok K. Bohara, 2014. "Evidence of Earnings Inequality Based on Caste in Nepal," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 52(3), pages 262-286, September.
    8. Shrivastava, Ritu & Sharma, Lochan & Jolly, Mehak & Ahuja, Romi & Sharma, Radhika & Naslund, John A. & Agrawal, Jyotsna & Shidhaye, Rahul & Mehrotra, Seema & Hollon, Steve D. & Patel, Vikram & Tugnawa, 2023. "“We are everyone's ASHAs but who's there for us?” a qualitative exploration of perceptions of work stress and coping among rural frontline workers in Madhya Pradesh, India," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 336(C).
    9. Moumita Poddar Rana & Tanmoyee Banerjee (Chatterjee) & Ajitava Raychaudhuri, 2023. "Religious And Social Group Diversity In Borrowing And Spending Behaviour: Analysis Of Survey Results From Rural West Bengal, India," Economic Annals, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Belgrade, vol. 68(236), pages 51-79, January –.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • O53 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East

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