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The intensity of advertising and other selling expenses in food and tobacco manufacturing: Measurement, determinants, and impacts


  • John M. Connor

    (Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana)

  • Scott Weimer

    (Graduate student with the Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana)


The measurement of selling effort in the food processing industries has improved in several ways. An FTC data set on both advertising and promotional expenses is used to estimate some determinants of variations in the intensity of selling effort. They are found to be related to market sales concentration, the number of brands being sold, elaborateness of packaging, and product perishability. A second analysis finds that the intensity of food-manufacturer selling efforts is nonnegatively associated with grocery wholesalers' or retailers' gross margins. The latter finding challenges the view that manufacturer advertising provides information that ultimately benefits consumers through lower retail prices.

Suggested Citation

  • John M. Connor & Scott Weimer, 1986. "The intensity of advertising and other selling expenses in food and tobacco manufacturing: Measurement, determinants, and impacts," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 2(3), pages 293-319.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:agribz:v:2:y:1986:i:3:p:293-319 DOI: 10.1002/1520-6297(198623)2:3<293::AID-AGR2720020304>3.0.CO;2-R

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Comanor, William S & Wilson, Thomas A, 1979. "The Effect of Advertising on Competition: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 453-476, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rodgers, Trey & Ali Jafri, S. Hussain & Padberg, Daniel I., 1993. "Price Competition Between National Brand And Private Label Food Products: 1966-1992," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 24(2), September.
    2. H. W. Kinnucan, 1996. "A Note On Measuring Returns To Generic Advertising In Interrelated Markets," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(1-4), pages 261-267.

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