The Export Market For Differentiated Processed Agricultural Products: The Role Of Factor Prices And Fixed Costs
The theories of monopolistic competition and ¡°love for variety¡± contend that the differences in firms¡¯ prices and market shares arise from product differentiation, which is linked to firms¡¯ fixed costs. This paper reviews these theories and their implications for prices and market shares of firms from developing countries seeking to expand their exports of processed agricultural goods. The study proposes a model showing the role of the firms¡¯ costs as a source of product differentiation. Using econometric methods, the model estimates the firms¡¯ residual demand elasticities, which indicate the degree of product differentiation and market power. The model also determines the effects of the firms¡¯ own costs and competitors¡¯ costs on the residual demand and market shares. Case studies for cocoa products and roasted coffee in the U.S. import market are examined. Exporters to the U.S. include developing countries that produce the raw cocoa and coffee. The results show that high prices and large market shares are associated with high levels of product differentiation in these markets. Also, market shares increase with the level of fixed costs, which are measured by proxy as advertising expenditures. The implication for small firms in developing countries is that increasing the degree of product differentiation through increased investment in advertising or research and development could increase their market shares and their export revenues.
|Date of creation:||2003|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Roller, Lars-Hendrik & Sickles, Robin C., 2000.
"Capacity and product market competition: measuring market power in a 'puppy-dog' industry,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 845-865, August.
- Lars-Hendrik Röller & Robin C. Sickles, 1997. "Capacity and Product Market Competition: Measuring Market Power in a "Puppy-Dog" Industry," CIG Working Papers FS IV 97-31, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Barbara J. Spencer & James A. Brander, 1983.
"International R&D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy,"
NBER Working Papers
1192, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Spencer, Barbara J & Brander, James A, 1983. "International R & D Rivalry and Industrial Strategy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(4), pages 707-22, October.
- Goldberg, Pinelopi Koujianou & Knetter, Michael M., 1999.
"Measuring the intensity of competition in export markets,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 27-60, February.
- Pinelopi K. Goldberg & Michael M. Knetter, 1995. "Measuring the Intensity of Competition in Export Markets," NBER Working Papers 5226, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shepherd, William G, 1972. "The Elements of Market Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 54(1), pages 25-37, February.
- A. Michael Spence, 1979. "Investment Strategy and Growth in a New Market," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 1-19, Spring.
- Shaked, Avner & Sutton, John, 1982. "Relaxing Price Competition through Product Differentiation," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 3-13, January.
- Catherine Matraves, 1998.
"Market Structure, R&D and Advertising in the Pharmaceutical Industry,"
CIG Working Papers
FS IV 98-17, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Matraves, Catherine, 1999. "Market Structure, R&D and Advertising in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 169-94, June.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977.
"Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
- Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1975. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 64, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Ayanian, Robert, 1983. "The Advertising Capital Controversy," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56(3), pages 349-64, July.
- Rosenberg, Joel B, 1976. "Research and Market Share: A Reappraisal of the Schumpeter Hypothesis," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 101-12, December.
- Comanor, William S & Wilson, Thomas A, 1969. "Advertising and the Advantages of Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 87-98, May.
- Comanor, William S & Wilson, Thomas A, 1971. "On Advertising and Profitability," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 53(4), pages 408-10, November.
- Comanor, William S & Wilson, Thomas A, 1979. "The Effect of Advertising on Competition: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 17(2), pages 453-76, June.
- Strickland, Allyn D & Weiss, Leonard W, 1976. "Advertising, Concentration, and Price-Cost Margins," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(5), pages 1109-21, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea03:21964. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.