IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Capacity and Product Market Competition: Measuring Market Power in a "Puppy-Dog" Industry

  • Lars-Hendrik Röller
  • Robin C. Sickles

In this paper we specify and estimate a structural model which accounts for competition in two variables: capacity and prices. The model has a two-stage setup. In the first stage firms make capacity decisions followed by a product-differentiated, price setting game in the second stage. Since costs are endogenized through the first stage, this has important implications for the measurement of market power in the product market. In particular, simpler one-stage specifications would result in a bias in the measurement of market power, which can be linked to the taxonomy for two-stage games given in Fudenberg and Tirole (1984). We then estimate this model - demand, cost (short and long run), and conduct - for the European Airline Industry using data for the period of 1976-1990. We perform a number of specification tests and reject a simple one-stage specification in favor of our two-stage set-up. In particular, we find that some degree of market power in the product market exists. However, market power in the two-stage set-up is significantly lower than in the more widely employed one-stage specification, which is consistent with the direction of bias in puppy-dog games. This illustrates that firms market power in the product market is significantly overestimated whenever capacity competition is not accounted for. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Kapazitäts- und Produktmarktwettbewerb: Die Messung von Marktmacht in einer "Puppy-Dog"-Industrie) In diesem Beitrag wird ein strukturelles Modell entwickelt und ökonometrisch geschätzt, das zwei Variablen des Wettbewerbs berücksichtigt: Kapazität und Preise. Das Modell ist zweistufig. Auf der ersten Stufe entscheiden die Unternehmen über die Kapazität, gefolgt von einem Produktdifferenzierungs- und Preissetzungsspiel auf der zweiten Stufe. Die Endogenisierung der Kosten auf der ersten Stufe hat wichtige Implikationen für die Messung der Marktmacht im Produktmarkt. Dabei ist zu berücksichtigen, daß eine einfachere einstufige Spezifikation zu einem Meßfehler der Marktmacht führen würde, was im Hinblick auf die Taxonomie der zweistufigen Spiele von Fudenberg und Tirole (1984) deutlich wird. Sodann wird das Modell anhand von Daten geschätzt, die die Nachfrage, kurz- und langfristige Kosten und Marktverhalten der europäischen Luftfahrtindustrie für die Zeit von 1976 bis 1990 beschreiben. Eine Reihe von Spezifikationstests wird durchgeführt, die zur Ablehnung der einfachen einstufigen Spezifikation zugunsten der zweistufigen Spezifikation führt. Bemerkenswert ist, daß sich empirisch zeigt, daß das Spiel in Übereinstimmung mit einer "puppy-dog"-Strategie steht. Mit anderen Worten europäische Luftfahrtgesellschaften überinvestieren in Kapazitäten, um weniger aggressiv auftreten zu müssen. Darüber hinaus zeigt sich, daß ein gewisser Grad an Marktmacht im Produktmarkt existiert. Jedoch ist die Marktmacht in dem zweistufigen Spiel signifikant geringer als in der üblicherweise angewendeten einstufigen Spezifikation. Dies wiederum ist in Übereinstimmung mit dem Bias von "Puppy-dog"-Spielen und illustriert, daß die Marktmacht von Unternehmen auf Produktmärkten beträchtlich überschätzt wird, wann immer Kapazitätswettbewerb nicht berücksichtigt wird.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Our checks indicate that this address may not be valid because: 500 Can't connect to ( [301 Moved Permanently]--> If this is indeed the case, please notify (Jennifer Rontganger)

Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG) in its series CIG Working Papers with number FS IV 97-31.

in new window

Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Dec 1997
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in the International Journal of Industrial Organization , Vol. 18(6), 2000, pp. 845-865.
Handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv97-31
Contact details of provider: Postal: Reichpietschufer 50, 10785 Berlin, Germany
Phone: (++49)(30) 25491-441
Fax: (++49)(30) 25491-442
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
  2. Brueckner, Jan K. & Spiller, Pablo T., 1991. "Competition and mergers in airline networks," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 323-342, September.
  3. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1989. "Empirical studies of industries with market power," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 17, pages 1011-1057 Elsevier.
  4. Borenstein, Severin, 1990. "Airline Mergers, Airport Dominance, and Market Power," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 400-404, May.
  5. Brander, James A. & Zhang, Anming, 1993. "Dynamic oligopoly behaviour in the airline industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 407-435, September.
  6. Berry, Steven T, 1992. "Estimation of a Model of Entry in the Airline Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 889-917, July.
  7. Berry, Steven T, 1990. "Airport Presence as Product Differentiation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 394-99, May.
  8. Appelbaum, Elie, 1982. "The estimation of the degree of oligopoly power," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 287-299, August.
  9. Jan K. Brueckner & Nichola J. Dyer & Pablo T. Spiller, 1992. "Fare Determination in Airline Hub-and-Spoke Networks," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 309-333, Autumn.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wzb:wzebiv:fsiv97-31. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jennifer Rontganger)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.