IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/vrs/subboe/v62y2017i2p55-76n4.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Competitive Condition of Sub-Saharan Africa Commercial Banks

Author

Listed:
  • Akande Joseph Olorunfemi

    (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

  • Kwenda Farai

    (University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

Abstract

This study assesses the competitive environment and the determinants of the Sub-Saharan Africa commercial banking sectors. We used the Lerner index that is generally acknowledged as the best at estimating the bank level competition and the Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) to study 440 commercial banks for the period 2006 to 2015. We found a monopolistic competitive banking market. We also observed that competition is driven by the level of bank capital including some bank specific variables. Hence, we concluded that the banking market of the SSA region is contestable and competitive. As such, we recommend, among other things, that policy makers should device measures to ensure an ongoing competitive banking environment while stimulating other economic variables to complement this feat.

Suggested Citation

  • Akande Joseph Olorunfemi & Kwenda Farai, 2017. "Competitive Condition of Sub-Saharan Africa Commercial Banks," Studia Universitatis Babeș-Bolyai Oeconomica, Sciendo, vol. 62(2), pages 55-76, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:vrs:subboe:v:62:y:2017:i:2:p:55-76:n:4
    DOI: 10.1515/subboec-2017-0009
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1515/subboec-2017-0009
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1515/subboec-2017-0009?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Shannon Mudd, 2013. "Bank Structure, Relationship Lending and Small Firm Access to Finance: A Cross-Country Investigation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 149-174, October.
    2. Molyneux, Phil & Lloyd-Williams, D. M. & Thornton, John, 1994. "Competitive conditions in european banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 445-459, May.
    3. Agoraki, Maria-Eleni K. & Delis, Manthos D. & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2011. "Regulations, competition and bank risk-taking in transition countries," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 38-48, January.
    4. Stijn Claessens & Luc Laeven, 2004. "What drives bank competition? Some international evidence," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 563-592.
    5. Shaffer, Sherrill, 2004. "Comment on "What Drives Bank Competition? Some International Evidence" by Stijn Claessens and Luc Laeven," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 585-592, June.
    6. Beck, Thorsten & De Jonghe, Olivier & Schepens, Glenn, 2013. "Bank competition and stability: Cross-country heterogeneity," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 218-244.
    7. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    8. Jan Boone, 2008. "Competition: Theoretical Parameterizations and Empirical Measures," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 164(4), pages 587-611, December.
    9. Mr. Calixte Ahokpossi, 2013. "Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2013/034, International Monetary Fund.
    10. Lau, Lawrence J., 1982. "On identifying the degree of competitiveness from industry price and output data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 93-99.
    11. Iwata, Gyoichi, 1974. "Measurement of Conjectural Variations in Oligopoly," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(5), pages 947-966, September.
    12. Jan Boone, 2008. "A New Way to Measure Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(531), pages 1245-1261, August.
    13. Jan Boone, 2008. "A New Way to Measure Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(531), pages 1245-1261, August.
    14. Delis, Manthos D & Papanikolaou, Nikolaos I, 2009. "Determinants of bank efficiency: Evidence from a semi-parametric methodology," MPRA Paper 13893, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    16. Manthos D. Delis & K. Christos Staikouras & Panagiotis T. Varlagas, 2008. "On the Measurement of Market Power in the Banking Industry," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(7‐8), pages 1023-1047, September.
    17. Clarke, George R.G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2006. "Foreign bank participation and access to credit across firms in developing countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 774-795, December.
    18. Weill, Laurent, 2013. "Bank competition in the EU: How has it evolved?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 100-112.
    19. Demsetz, Harold, 1973. "Industry Structure, Market Rivalry, and Public Policy," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 1-9, April.
    20. Florian Leon, 2015. "What do we know about the role of bank competition in Africa?," CERDI Working papers halshs-01164864, HAL.
    21. Xiaoqing Maggie Fu & Yongjia Rebecca Lin & Philip Molyneux, 2015. "Bank Competition and Financial Stability in Asia Pacific," Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions, in: Bank Competition, Efficiency and Liquidity Creation in Asia Pacific, chapter 3, pages 49-71, Palgrave Macmillan.
    22. Tara Rice & Philip E. Strahan, 2010. "Does Credit Competition Affect Small‐Firm Finance?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(3), pages 861-889, June.
    23. Michel Dietsch, 1993. "Localisation et concurrence dans la banque," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 44(4), pages 779-790.
    24. Mueller,Dennis C., 2009. "Profits in the Long Run," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521101592, November.
    25. Berg, Sigbjorn Atle & Kim, Moshe, 1994. "Oligopolistic Interdependence and the Structure of Production in Banking: An Empirical Evaluation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 26(2), pages 309-322, May.
    26. International Monetary Fund, 2005. "Competition in Indian Banking," IMF Working Papers 2005/141, International Monetary Fund.
    27. Carbó, Santiago & Humphrey, David & Maudos, Joaquín & Molyneux, Philip, 2009. "Cross-country comparisons of competition and pricing power in European banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 115-134, February.
    28. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone, 2006. "Bank Competition, Concentration And Efficiency In The Single European Market," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 74(4), pages 441-468, July.
    29. Ines Ben Abdelkader & Faysal Mansouri, 2013. "Competitive Conditions of the Tunisian Banking Industry: An Application of the Panzar–Rosse Model," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(4), pages 526-536.
    30. Kupukile Mlambo & Mthuli Ncube, 2011. "Competition and Efficiency in the Banking Sector in South Africa," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 23(1), pages 4-15.
    31. Turk Ariss, Rima, 2010. "On the implications of market power in banking: Evidence from developing countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 765-775, April.
    32. Maudos, Joaquín & Solís, Liliana, 2011. "Deregulation, liberalization and consolidation of the Mexican banking system: Effects on competition," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 337-353, March.
    33. Florian LEON, 2014. "Measuring competition in banking: A critical review of methods," Working Papers 201412, CERDI.
    34. Ines Ben Abdelkader & Faysal Mansouri, 2013. "Competitive Conditions of the Tunisian Banking Industry: An Application of the Panzar–Rosse Model," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 25(4), pages 526-536, December.
    35. Kouki, Imen & Al-Nasser, Amjad, 2017. "The implication of banking competition: Evidence from African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 878-895.
    36. Xiangning Wang & Xianming Zeng & Zhiyang Zhang, 2014. "The influence of the market power of Chinese commercial banks on efficiency and stability," China Finance Review International, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 4(4), pages 307-325, November.
    37. Bresnahan, Timothy F., 1982. "The oligopoly solution concept is identified," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 87-92.
    38. Anthony Aboagye & S.K. Akoena & T.O. Antwi‐Asare & A.F. Gockel, 2008. "Explaining Interest Rate Spreads in Ghana," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 20(3), pages 378-399.
    39. Klaus Schaeck & Martin Cihák, 2014. "Competition, Efficiency, and Stability in Banking," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 43(1), pages 215-241, March.
    40. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2017. "Bank competition and financial stability," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 10, pages 185-204, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    41. A. P. Lerner, 1934. "Economic Theory and Socialist Economy," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 2(1), pages 51-61.
    42. Anca Pruteanu-Podpiera & Franziska Schobert & Laurent Weill, 2008. "Banking competition and cost efficiency: a micro-data analysis on the Czech banking industry," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/14307, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    43. Valentina Flamini & Miss Liliana B Schumacher & Mr. Calvin A McDonald, 2009. "The Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 2009/015, International Monetary Fund.
    44. Fernandez de Guevara, Juan & Maudos, Joaquin & Perez, Francisco, 2007. "Integration and competition in the European financial markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 26-45, February.
    45. Juan Fernandez de Guevara & Joaquin Maudos, 2011. "Banking competition and economic growth: cross-country evidence," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(8), pages 739-764.
    46. Amidu, Mohammed, 2013. "The effects of the structure of banking market and funding strategy on risk and return," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 143-155.
    47. Anca Pruteanu-Podpiera & Laurent Weill & Franziska Schobert, 2008. "Banking Competition and Efficiency: A Micro-Data Analysis on the Czech Banking Industry," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 50(2), pages 253-273, June.
    48. E. W. Chirwa, 2003. "Determinants of commercial banks' profitability in Malawi: a cointegration approach," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 565-571.
    49. Carol Ann Northcott, 2004. "Competition in Banking: A Review of the Literature," Staff Working Papers 04-24, Bank of Canada.
    50. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    51. Bikker, Jacob A. & Haaf, Katharina, 2002. "Competition, concentration and their relationship: An empirical analysis of the banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(11), pages 2191-2214, November.
    52. Phil Molyneux & D. M. Lloyd-Williams & John Thornton, 1994. "European Banking: An Analysis of Competitive Conditions," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Jack Revell (ed.), The Changing Face of European Banks and Securities Market, chapter 1, pages 3-29, Palgrave Macmillan.
    53. Sealey, Calvin W, Jr & Lindley, James T, 1977. "Inputs, Outputs, and a Theory of Production and Cost at Depository Financial Institutions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1251-1266, September.
    54. Rojas Christian, 2011. "Market Power and the Lerner Index: A Classroom Experiment," Journal of Industrial Organization Education, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-19, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Florian Leon, 2015. "What do we know about the role of bank competition in Africa?," CERDI Working papers halshs-01164864, HAL.
    2. Barbara Casu & Claudia Girardone & Philip Molyneux, 2012. "Is There a Conflict between Competition and Financial Stability?," Chapters, in: James R. Barth & Chen Lin & Clas Wihlborg (ed.), Research Handbook on International Banking and Governance, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Joseph Olorunfemi Akande & Farai Kwenda, 2017. "Does Competition Cause Stability in Banks? SFA and GMM Application to Sub-Saharan Africa Commercial Banks," Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, AMH International, vol. 9(4), pages 173-186.
    4. El Moussawi, Chawki & Mansour, Rana, 2022. "Competition, cost efficiency and stability of banks in the MENA region," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 143-170.
    5. Wang, Xiaodong & Han, Liang & Huang, Xing, 2020. "Bank market power and SME finance: Firm-bank evidence from European countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    6. Andrieş, Alin Marius & Căpraru, Bogdan, 2014. "The nexus between competition and efficiency: The European banking industries experience," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 566-579.
    7. Samangi Bandaranayake & Kuntal Das & W. Robert Reed, 2017. "A Replication of “Are Competitive Banking Systems More Stable?” (Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 2009)," Working Papers in Economics 17/01, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
    8. Tabak, Benjamin M. & Gomes, Guilherme M.R. & da Silva Medeiros, Maurício, 2015. "The impact of market power at bank level in risk-taking: The Brazilian case," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 154-165.
    9. Chaffai, Mohamed & Coccorese, Paolo, 2023. "Banking market power and its determinants: New insights from MENA countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 55(C).
    10. Filip Switala & Malgorzata Olszak & Iwona Kowalska, 2013. "Competition in commercial banks in Poland – analysis of Panzar-Rosse H-statistics," Faculty of Management Working Paper Series 42013, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management.
    11. Li, Shaofang & Marinč, Matej, 2016. "Competition in the clearing and settlement industry," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 134-162.
    12. Coccorese, Paolo & Pellecchia, Alfonso, 2013. "Multimarket contact, competition and pricing in banking," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 187-214.
    13. Jayakumar, Manju & Pradhan, Rudra P. & Dash, Saurav & Maradana, Rana P. & Gaurav, Kunal, 2018. "Banking competition, banking stability, and economic growth: Are feedback effects at work?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 15-41.
    14. Abdul Latif Alhassan & Nicholas Biekpe, 2017. "Liberalization Outcomes and Competitive Behaviour in an Emerging Insurance Market," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 29(2), pages 122-138, June.
    15. Usman Bashir & Shoaib Khan & Abdulhafiz Jones & Muntazir Hussain, 2021. "Do banking system transparency and market structure affect financial stability of Chinese banks?," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 54(1), pages 1-41, February.
    16. Kouki, Imen & Al-Nasser, Amjad, 2017. "The implication of banking competition: Evidence from African countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(PB), pages 878-895.
    17. Andrei Dubovik & Natasha Kalara, 2018. "Can we measure banking sector competition robustly?," CPB Discussion Paper 386.rdf, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
    18. Cuestas, Juan Carlos & Lucotte, Yannick & Reigl, Nicolas, 2017. "Banking sector concentration, competition and financial stability: the case of the Baltic countries," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2017-7, Bank of Estonia, revised 11 Sep 2017.
    19. Richter Toni, 2021. "Bankenwettbewerb und die Stabilität von Finanzsektoren: Nur eine Frage der Messmethode?," Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 70(1), pages 1-36, May.
    20. Cruz-García, Paula & Fernández de Guevara, Juan & Maudos, Joaquín, 2021. "Bank competition and multimarket contact intensity," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 113(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    competitive condition; Sub-Saharan Africa; commercial banks; Lerner index; Generalised Method of Moments;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L10 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:vrs:subboe:v:62:y:2017:i:2:p:55-76:n:4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Peter Golla (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.sciendo.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.