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Explaining and Tackling Under-Declared Employment in FYR Macedonia: The Employers Perspective

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  • Williams Colin C.

    (Professor of Public Policy at the University of Sheffield,Sheffield, United Kingdom)

  • Bezeredi Slavko

    (Researcher in the Institute of Public Finance,Zagreb, Croatia)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to evaluate how employers who illegally under-report their employees’ salaries to evade paying the full tax and social contributions owed can be explained and tackled. These employers have been conventionally explained as rational economic actors doing so when the benefits outweigh the costs, and thus the solution is to increase the sanctions and/or probability of detection. An alternative social actor approach, however, explains employers as under-reporting salaries because of their lack of both vertical trust (i.e., their beliefs are not in symmetry with the laws and regulations) and horizontal trust (i.e., they believe many others are non-compliant). Reporting a 2015 survey of 450 employers in FYR Macedonia, the finding is that there is no strong association between employers under-reporting salaries and their perceived level of penalties and risks of detection, but a strong significant association with both their level of vertical and horizontal trust. The theoretical and policy implications are then discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Williams Colin C. & Bezeredi Slavko, 2018. "Explaining and Tackling Under-Declared Employment in FYR Macedonia: The Employers Perspective," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 13(2), pages 19-31, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:vrs:seejeb:v:13:y:2018:i:2:p:19-31:n:3
    DOI: 10.2478/jeb-2018-0010
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Williams Colin C. & Kayaoglu Aysegul, 2020. "The Coronavirus Pandemic and Europe’s Undeclared Economy: Impacts and a Policy Proposal," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 15(1), pages 80-92, June.
    2. C Williams, Colin, 2021. "Explaining And Tackling Undeclared Work In South East Europe: Lessons From A 2019 Eurobarometer Survey," UTMS Journal of Economics, University of Tourism and Management, Skopje, Macedonia, vol. 12(1), pages 1-18.

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