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Cash wage payments in transition economies: Consequences of envelope wages

Author

Listed:
  • Ioana Alexandra Horodnic

    (Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iaşi, Romania)

Abstract

In transition economies, a significant number of companies reduce their tax and social contributions by paying their staff an official salary, described in a registered formal employment agreement, and an extra, undeclared “envelope wage,” via a verbal unwritten agreement. The consequences include a loss of government income and a lack of fair play for lawful companies. For employees, accepting under-reported wages reduces their access to credit and their social protections. Addressing this issue will help increase the quality of working conditions, strengthen trade unions, and reduce unfair competition.

Suggested Citation

  • Ioana Alexandra Horodnic, 2016. "Cash wage payments in transition economies: Consequences of envelope wages," IZA World of Labor, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), pages 280-280, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izawol:journl:y:2016:n:280
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Colin C Williams & Junhong Yang, 2017. "Tackling falsely-declared salaries in Bulgaria: evidence from a 2015 survey," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 3, pages 333-351, September.
    2. Colin C Williams & Slavko Bezeredi, 2017. "Explaining Consumers’ Motives for Purchasing from the Informal Economy: Some Lessons from a Study of Bulgaria, Croatia and FYR of of Macedonia," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 4, pages 515-531, December.
    3. Mirela STOICAN & Adina Liana CAMARDA & Corina Carmen VI?AN & Nelly FILIP & Culai DASCÃLU & Alina M. IONA?CU & Cristinel ?ONEA & Leonard STOICAN, 2016. "Implications Of Improving The Quality Of Training Human Services Agritourists In South Eastern Romania," THE YEARBOOK OF THE "GH. ZANE" INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCHES, Gheorghe Zane Institute for Economic and Social Research ( from THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY, JASSY BRANCH), vol. 25(1), pages 61-72.
    4. C. Williams, Colin & Bezeredi, Slavko, 2017. "Tackling The Illegal Practice Of Under-Reporting Employees’ Wages: Lessons From The Republic Of Macedonia," UTMS Journal of Economics, University of Tourism and Management, Skopje, Macedonia, vol. 8(3), pages 243-258.
    5. Paraskevi Koufopoulou & Colin C. Williams & Athanassios Vozikis & Kyriakos Souliotis, 2019. "Shadow Economy: Definitions, terms & theoretical considerations," Advances in Management and Applied Economics, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 9(5), pages 1-3.
    6. Sinyavskaya, O. & Biryukova, S., 2018. "Possible Measures Aimed at Reducing Informal Employment and Hidden Wages," Journal of the New Economic Association, New Economic Association, vol. 37(1), pages 193-203.
    7. Ioana A. HORODNI & Colin C. WILLIAMS & Adrian V. HORODNIC, 2016. "Are Practices Of Competitors In The Informal Sector A Major Threat For Hotels And Restaurants?," THE YEARBOOK OF THE "GH. ZANE" INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC RESEARCHES, Gheorghe Zane Institute for Economic and Social Research ( from THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY, JASSY BRANCH), vol. 25(1), pages 49-60.
    8. Vasily Astrov & Mario Holzner & Sebastian Leitner & Isilda Mara & Leon Podkaminer & Armon Rezai, 2019. "Wage Developments in the Central and Eastern European EU Member States," wiiw Research Reports 443, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    9. Williams Colin C. & Bezeredi Slavko, 2018. "Explaining and Tackling Under-Declared Employment in FYR Macedonia: The Employers Perspective," South East European Journal of Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 13(2), pages 19-31, December.
    10. Colin C. WILLIAMS & Josip FRANIC, 2017. "Tackling the illegitimate under-reporting of salaries in Southeast Europe: some lessons from a 2015 survey in Bulgaria, Croatia and FYR Macedonia," Eastern Journal of European Studies, Centre for European Studies, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, vol. 8, pages 5-28, June.
    11. Vasily Astrov & Sebastian Leitner & Isilda Mara & Leon Podkaminer & Hermine Vidovic, 2020. "Wage Developments in the Western Balkans, Moldova and Ukraine," wiiw Research Reports 444, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    12. Vasily Astrov & Mario Holzner & Sebastian Leitner & Isilda Mara & Leon Podkaminer & Armon Rezai, 2018. "Die Lohnentwicklung in den mittel- und osteuropäischen Mitgliedsländern der EU," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 178, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.
    13. Richard Grieveson & Sebastian Leitner & Isilda Mara, 2020. "Monthly Report No. 01/2020," wiiw Monthly Reports 2020-01, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    envelope wages; informal employment; undeclared economy; tax evasion;

    JEL classification:

    • J46 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Informal Labor Market
    • J48 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Particular Labor Markets; Public Policy
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy

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