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Human Capital, Urbanization and Canadian Provincial Growth


  • Serge Coulombe


COULOMBE S. (2003) Human capital, urbanization and Canadian provincial growth, Reg. Studies 37 , 239-250. This paper investigates the conditional convergence of both human capital indicators and nominal per capita income across Canadian provinces in a panel-data empirical framework. Long-run relative provincial steady states are determined by relative rates of urbanization, one-time shocks to Quebec's and Alberta's relative steady states, and a Nova Scotia fixed effect. Indicators of relative human capital ratios appear to have converged following a pattern that is common and similar to per capita income but with two notable exceptions. First, in Alberta, the 1973 oil shock contributed to the rise in per capita income but its effect on human capital is significant only for females. Second, human capital appears to remain concentrated in the relatively poor province of Nova Scotia. Two notable findings come out of the analysis. First, nominal income disparities at the provincial level appear to be real, not just nominal. Second, the analysis suggests that, at the regional level, human capital is a necessary but not sufficient condition for being wealthier in the long run. COULOMBE S. (2003) Le capital humain, l'urbanisation et la croissance provinciale au Canada, Reg. Studies 37 , 239-250. A partir des donnees provenant des enque tes empiriques par panel, cet article cherche a examiner la convergence conditionnelle et des indicateurs du capital humain, et du revenu par tete nominal a travers les provinces du Canada. Des etats stationnaires provinciaux relatifs et a long terme sont determines a partir des taux d'urbanisation relatifs, des chocs ponctuels aux etats stationnaires pour le Quebec et l'Alberta, et d'un effet fixe dans la Nouvelle-Ecosse. Il semble que des indicateurs des rapports relatifs du capital humain ont converge par suite d'une tendance commune et similaire a celle du revenu par tete, a deux exceptions importantes pres. Primo, en Alberta, le choc petrolier de 1973 a contribue a la montee du revenu par tete, bien que son effet sur le capital humain ne soit marque que pour les femmes. Secundo, le capital humain semble se concentrer sur la province relativement pauvre qui est la Nouvelle-Ecosse. Il en resulte de cette analyse deux constats majeurs. Dans un premier temps, les ecarts des revenus nominaux semblent etre non seulement nominaux mais aussi reels au niveau provincial. Dans un deuxieme temps, l'analyse laisse supposer que, sur le plan regional, le capital humain s'avere a long terme une condition prealable mais non pas suffisante de la richesse. COULOMBE S. (2003) Menschenkapital, Versta dterung und Wachstum in kanadischen Provinzen, Reg. Studies 37 , 239-250. Dieser Aufsatz untersucht die bedingte Konvergenz von Indikatoren von Menschenkapital und nominalem per-Kopf Einkommen in Provinzen in ganz Kanada im Rahmen einer empirischen Datenliste. Lang anhaltende, sich relativ im Gleichschritt bewegende Zustande in Provinzen werden durch relative Raten der Verstadterung bestimmt, die seinerzeit wie Schock auf die relativ gleichmassig anhaltenden Zustande in Alberta und Quebec gewirkt hatten, und durch einen Dauerzustand in Nova Scotia. Indikatoren relativer Menschenkapitalraten scheinen sich an einander angenahert zu haben, wobei sie einem Muster folgen, das weit verbreitet und dem pro-Kopf Einkommen ahnlich ist, doch nicht ohne zwei beachtenswerte Ausnahmen. Die erste betrifft Alberta, wo der Olschock 1973 zu einen Anstieg in pro-Kopf Einkommen beitrug, doch seine Wirkung aufs Menschenkapital nur bei Frauen als signifikant bezeichnet werden kann. Zweitens scheint die Konzentration von Menschenkapital in der relativ armen Provinz Nova Scotia weiter anzuhalten. Es ergeben sich zwei bemerkenswerte Befunde aus der Analyse: nominale Einkommensungleichheiten scheinen nicht nur nominal auf Provinzebene zu sein, sie sind es auch in Realitat, uns zweitens deutet die Analyse darauf hin, dass auf regionaler Ebene Menschenkapital eine notwendige, doch auf lange Sicht nicht ausreichende Bedingung fur grosseren Wohlstand ist.

Suggested Citation

  • Serge Coulombe, 2003. "Human Capital, Urbanization and Canadian Provincial Growth," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 239-250.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:37:y:2003:i:3:p:239-250
    DOI: 10.1080/0034340032000065406

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "Spatial inequality and polarisation in India," Working Papers 2004_5, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    2. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "The Dynamics of Spatial Inequality and Polarisation in Iran," Working Papers 2003_17, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    3. Lukas Matejovsky & Sandeep Mohapatra & Bodo Steiner, 2014. "The Dynamic Effects of Entrepreneurship on Regional Economic Growth: Evidence from Canada," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(4), pages 611-639, December.
    4. Serge Coulombe & Jean-Francois Tremblay, 2009. "Education, Productivity and Economic Growth: A Selective Review of the Evidence," International Productivity Monitor, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, vol. 18, pages 3-24, Spring.
    5. Farhad Noorbakhsh, "undated". "Human Development and Regional Disparities in India," Working Papers 2003_12, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
    6. Steven Yamarik, 2006. "Solow and the states: New evidence," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(6), pages 571-582.

    More about this item


    Convergence; Urbanization; Regional Growth; Human Capital; Canadian Regions; Neo-classical Growth Model;

    JEL classification:

    • O41 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)
    • R15 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Econometric and Input-Output Models; Other Methods


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