IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Energy consumption, economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union countries


  • Giedrė Lapinskienė
  • Kęstutis Peleckis
  • Neringa Slavinskaitė


This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, greenhouse gas emissions and other factors based on the panel data of 22 countries of the EU in the period 1995–2014. The fixed effect panel model was used as a framework for the analysis. The novel contribution of this paper is that the factors of economic growth, energy consumption, energy taxes as well as R&D were tested in one expanded EKC model, including the data of three Baltic States. The regression coefficients referring to GDP, Energy consumption have a positive sign, while R&D and Energy taxes have a negative sign. The empirical analysis combines two steps of evaluation of panel models of different groups of countries. The results imply that the analysed factors (energy consumption, energy taxes as well as R&D) can be applied to adjust the EKC trend in the region and might be useful for the climate change policy adjustment.

Suggested Citation

  • Giedrė Lapinskienė & Kęstutis Peleckis & Neringa Slavinskaitė, 2017. "Energy consumption, economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union countries," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 1082-1097, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jbemgt:v:18:y:2017:i:6:p:1082-1097
    DOI: 10.3846/16111699.2017.1393457

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Baek, Jungho, 2015. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: The case of Arctic countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 13-17.
    2. Iwata, Hiroki & Okada, Keisuke & Samreth, Sovannroeun, 2011. "A note on the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2: A pooled mean group approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(5), pages 1986-1996, May.
    3. Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
    4. Selden Thomas M. & Song Daqing, 1994. "Environmental Quality and Development: Is There a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 147-162, September.
    5. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995. "Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
    6. Ozturk, Ilhan & Acaravci, Ali, 2010. "The causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania: Evidence from ARDL bound testing approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(6), pages 1938-1943, June.
    7. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, President and Fellows of Harvard College, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    8. Fujii, Hidemichi & Managi, Shunsuke, 2013. "Which industry is greener? An empirical study of nine industries in OECD countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 381-388.
    9. Esteve, Vicente & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2012. "Is there an environmental Kuznets curve for Spain? Fresh evidence from old data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2696-2703.
    10. Marrero, Gustavo A., 2010. "Greenhouse gases emissions, growth and the energy mix in Europe," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1356-1363, November.
    11. He, Jie & Wang, Hua, 2012. "Economic structure, development policy and environmental quality: An empirical analysis of environmental Kuznets curves with Chinese municipal data," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 49-59.
    12. Hua Liao & Huaishu Cao, 2012. "How does carbon dioxide emission change with the economic development? Statistical experiences from 132 countries," CEEP-BIT Working Papers 54, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology.
    13. Onafowora, Olugbenga A. & Owoye, Oluwole, 2014. "Bounds testing approach to analysis of the environment Kuznets curve hypothesis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 47-62.
    14. Bölük, Gülden & Mert, Mehmet, 2014. "Fossil & renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 439-446.
    15. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nasreen, Samia & Abbas, Faisal & Anis, Omri, 2015. "Does foreign direct investment impede environmental quality in high-, middle-, and low-income countries?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 275-287.
    16. Kasman, Adnan & Duman, Yavuz Selman, 2015. "CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption, trade and urbanization in new EU member and candidate countries: A panel data analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 97-103.
    17. Cemal Atici, 2009. "Carbon emissions in Central and Eastern Europe: environmental Kuznets curve and implications for sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 155-160.
    18. Wang, S.S. & Zhou, D.Q. & Zhou, P. & Wang, Q.W., 2011. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in China: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 4870-4875, September.
    19. Romualdas Ginevičius Author-Email: & Giedrė Lapinskienė & Kęstutis Peleckis, 2017. "The Evolution of the Environmental Kuznets Curve Concept: The Review of the Research," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 64(1), pages 93-112, December.
    20. Ajmi, Ahdi Noomen & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Sato, João Ricardo, 2015. "On the relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption and income: The importance of time variation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 629-638.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Alexandra Horobet & Oana Cristina Popovici & Emanuela Zlatea & Lucian Belascu & Dan Gabriel Dumitrescu & Stefania Cristina Curea, 2021. "Long-Run Dynamics of Gas Emissions, Economic Growth, and Low-Carbon Energy in the European Union: The Fostering Effect of FDI and Trade," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(10), pages 1-30, May.
    2. Claudiu Cicea & Carmen Nadia Ciocoiu & Corina Marinescu, 2021. "Exploring the Research Regarding Energy–Economic Growth Relationship," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(9), pages 1-23, May.
    3. Iwona Bąk & Małgorzata Tarczyńska-Łuniewska & Anna Barwińska-Małajowicz & Paweł Hydzik & Dariusz Kusz, 2022. "Is Energy Use in the EU Countries Moving toward Sustainable Development?," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(16), pages 1-26, August.
    4. Xiaolong Chen & Fang Chen & Fangyuan Cui & Wachio Lei, 2023. "Spatial Heterogeneity of Sustainable Land Use in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area in the Context of the Carbon Cycle: GIS-Based Big Data Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(2), pages 1-15, January.
    5. NAVICKAS Mykolas & TIUTIUNYK Inna & VASYLIEVA Tetyana & SEDMÍKOVÁ Eliška, 2021. "Energy Consumption in Assessment of Shadow Economy," European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Bucharest Economic Academy, issue 02, June.
    6. Krzysztof Kluza & Magdalena Zioło & Iwona Bąk & Anna Spoz, 2021. "Achieving Environmental Policy Objectives through the Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals. The Case for European Union Countries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(8), pages 1-22, April.
    7. Djula Borozan, 2022. "Revealing the complexity in the environmental Kuznets curve set in a European multivariate framework," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 24(7), pages 9165-9184, July.
    8. Magdalena Ziolo & Krzysztof Kluza & Anna Spoz, 2019. "Impact of Sustainable Financial and Economic Development on Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Developed and Converging Economies," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(23), pages 1-30, November.
    9. Bartosz Jóźwik & Antonina-Victoria Gavryshkiv & Kinga Galewska, 2022. "Do Urbanization and Energy Consumption Change the Role in Environmental Degradation in the European Union Countries?," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(17), pages 1-14, September.
    10. Mihaela Sterpu & Georgeta Soava & Anca Mehedintu, 2018. "Impact of Economic Growth and Energy Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Testing Environmental Curves Hypotheses on EU Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(9), pages 1-14, September.
    11. Aditya Prana Iswara & Jerry Dwi Trijoyo Purnomo & Lin-Han Chiang Hsieh & Aulia Ulfah Farahdiba & Andrian Dolfriandra Huruta, 2022. "More Is More? The Inquiry of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Upstream Petroleum Fields of Indonesia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(11), pages 1-18, June.
    12. Bartosz Jóźwik & Antonina Gavryshkiv, 2022. "Wpływ podatku środowiskowego na emisję gazów cieplarnianych w państwach Grupy Wyszehradzkiej," Gospodarka Narodowa. The Polish Journal of Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, issue 1, pages 66-78.
    13. Frodyma, Katarzyna & Papież, Monika & Śmiech, Sławomir, 2022. "Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve in the European Union countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 241(C).
    14. Wang, Jing & Wan, Guanghua & Wang, Chen, 2019. "Participation in GVCs and CO2 emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
    15. Cristiana Tudor, 2022. "The Nexus between Pollution and Obesity and the Magnifying Role of Media Consumption: International Evidence from GMM Systems Estimates," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 19(16), pages 1-18, August.
    16. Beata Zofia Filipiak & Dorota Wyszkowska, 2022. "Determinants of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in European Union Countries," Energies, MDPI, vol. 15(24), pages 1-24, December.
    17. Simionescu, Mihaela, 2021. "The nexus between economic development and pollution in the European Union new member states. The role of renewable energy consumption," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 179(C), pages 1767-1780.
    18. Mariano González-Sánchez & Juan Luis Martín-Ortega, 2020. "Greenhouse Gas Emissions Growth in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Determinants," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-22, January.
    19. Serhiy Lyeonov & Tetyana Pimonenko & Yuriy Bilan & Dalia Štreimikienė & Grzegorz Mentel, 2019. "Assessment of Green Investments’ Impact on Sustainable Development: Linking Gross Domestic Product Per Capita, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Renewable Energy," Energies, MDPI, vol. 12(20), pages 1-12, October.
    20. Anna Komarnicka & Anna Murawska, 2021. "Comparison of Consumption and Renewable Sources of Energy in European Union Countries—Sectoral Indicators, Economic Conditions and Environmental Impacts," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(12), pages 1-24, June.
    21. Haider Mahmood & Ateeq ur Rehman Irshad & Muhammad Tanveer, 2024. "Do innovation and renewable energy transition play their role in environmental sustainability in Western Europe?," Palgrave Communications, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 1-9, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Giedrė Lapinskienė & Kęstutis Peleckis & Marijus Radavičius, 2015. "Economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union countries," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(6), pages 1109-1123, December.
    2. Muhammad Shahbaz & Avik Sinha, 2019. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2emissions: a literature survey," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 46(1), pages 106-168, January.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Sinha, Avik, 2019. "Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 emission: A survey of empirical literature," MPRA Paper 100257, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2019.
    4. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    5. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Haouas, Ilham & Hoang, Thi Hong Van, 2019. "Economic growth and environmental degradation in Vietnam: Is the environmental Kuznets curve a complete picture?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 197-218.
    6. Dogan, Eyup & Seker, Fahri, 2016. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in the European Union: The role of renewable and non-renewable energy," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 429-439.
    7. Nasreen, Samia & Anwar, Sofia & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2017. "Financial stability, energy consumption and environmental quality: Evidence from South Asian economies," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 1105-1122.
    8. Liobikienė, Genovaitė & Butkus, Mindaugas, 2017. "Environmental Kuznets Curve of greenhouse gas emissions including technological progress and substitution effects," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 237-248.
    9. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    10. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Mahalik, Mantu Kumar & Shah, Syed Hasanat & Sato, João Ricardo, 2016. "Time-varying analysis of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and economic growth nexus: Statistical experience in next 11 countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 33-48.
    11. Dogan, Eyup & Seker, Fahri, 2016. "The influence of real output, renewable and non-renewable energy, trade and financial development on carbon emissions in the top renewable energy countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 1074-1085.
    12. Roxana Pincheira & Felipe Zuniga, 2021. "Environmental Kuznets curve bibliographic map: a systematic literature review," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 61(S1), pages 1931-1956, April.
    13. Panagiotis Fotis & Michael Polemis, 2018. "Sustainable development, environmental policy and renewable energy use: A dynamic panel data approach," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(6), pages 726-740, November.
    14. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Mutascu, Mihai & Azim, Parvez, 2013. "Environmental Kuznets curve in Romania and the role of energy consumption," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 165-173.
    15. Li, Tingting & Wang, Yong & Zhao, Dingtao, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets Curve in China: New evidence from dynamic panel analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 138-147.
    16. Albulescu, Claudiu Tiberiu & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Yoon, Seong-Min & Kang, Sang Hoon, 2019. "FDI, income, and environmental pollution in Latin America: Replication and extension using panel quantiles regression analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
    17. Zhang, Qianxue & Liao, Hua & Hao, Yu, 2018. "Does one path fit all? An empirical study on the relationship between energy consumption and economic development for individual Chinese provinces," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 527-543.
    18. Daniel Armeanu & Georgeta Vintilă & Jean Vasile Andrei & Ştefan Cristian Gherghina & Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi & Cristian Teodor, 2018. "Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(5), pages 1-28, May.
    19. Bingjie Xu & Ruoyu Zhong & Yifeng Liu, 2019. "Comparison of CO 2 emissions reduction efficiency of household fuel consumption in China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(4), pages 1-13, February.
    20. Vural, Gulfer, 2020. "How do output, trade, renewable energy and non-renewable energy impact carbon emissions in selected Sub-Saharan African Countries?," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:jbemgt:v:18:y:2017:i:6:p:1082-1097. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.