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Carbon emissions in Central and Eastern Europe: environmental Kuznets curve and implications for sustainable development

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  • Cemal Atici

    (Adnan Menderes University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Aydin, Turkey)

Abstract

This study examines the impact of various factors such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, energy use per capita and trade openness on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission per capita in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The extended environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) was employed, utilizing the available panel data from 1980 to 2002 for Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Turkey. The results confirm the existence of an EKC for the region such that CO 2 emission per capita decreases over time as the per capita GDP increases. Energy use per capita is a significant factor that causes pollution in the region, indicating that the region produces environmentally unclean energy. The trade openness variable implies that globalization has not facilitated the emission level in the region. The results imply that the region needs environmentally cleaner technologies in energy production to achieve sustainable development. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

Suggested Citation

  • Cemal Atici, 2009. "Carbon emissions in Central and Eastern Europe: environmental Kuznets curve and implications for sustainable development," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(3), pages 155-160.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:sustdv:v:17:y:2009:i:3:p:155-160
    DOI: 10.1002/sd.372
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    1. Cole, M.A. & Rayner, A.J. & Bates, J.M., 1997. "The environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical analysis," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(4), pages 401-416, November.
    2. Cole, Matthew A., 2003. "Development, trade, and the environment: how robust is the Environmental Kuznets Curve?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(4), pages 557-580, October.
    3. Grossman, G.M & Krueger, A.B., 1991. "Environmental Impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement," Papers 158, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
    4. Krishna Paudel & Hector Zapata & Dwi Susanto, 2005. "An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollution," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 31(3), pages 325-348, July.
    5. Richmond, Amy K. & Kaufmann, Robert K., 2006. "Is there a turning point in the relationship between income and energy use and/or carbon emissions?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 176-189, February.
    6. Torras, Mariano & Boyce, James K., 1998. "Income, inequality, and pollution: a reassessment of the environmental Kuznets Curve," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-160, May.
    7. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
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