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Asymmetric Spillovers And Investments In Research And Development Of Leaders And Followers

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  • Jan Vandekerckhove
  • Raymond De Bondt

Abstract

The focus of this paper is on the incentives of firms to invest in research and development (R&D) when sequential moves are taken into account. Leading firms move before followers in investment and in output choices in a four stage game setting. Leaders may compete or cooperate in R&D with other leaders, given that followers compete. Followers may compete or cooperate in R&D with other followers given that leaders compete. There may be spillovers between leaders and between followers and also between these two groups of players. Due to the complexity of the model, results are obtained by numerical simulations. The impact of symmetric spillovers is similar but not identical to the tendencies in two stage models with simultaneous R&D moves. A relatively wide set of circumstances is identified where followers tend to invest more than leaders. Critical spillover values are identified that drive the effects of cooperation in R&D as is the case in simpler settings. Situations are detailed, where consumer surplus and static welfare are best served by cooperation of followers rather than cooperation of leaders.

Suggested Citation

  • Jan Vandekerckhove & Raymond De Bondt, 2008. "Asymmetric Spillovers And Investments In Research And Development Of Leaders And Followers," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(5), pages 417-433.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:17:y:2008:i:5:p:417-433
    DOI: 10.1080/10438590701356041
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christine Halmenschlager, 2004. "R&D-cooperating laggards versus a technological leader," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 717-732.
    2. Reinganum, Jennifer F., 1985. "A two-stage model of research and development with endogenous second-mover advantages," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 275-292, September.
    3. Jim Jin & Rabah Amir & Madjid Amir, 2000. "Sequencing R&D decisions in a two-period duopoly with spillovers," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 15(2), pages 297-317.
    4. Gamal Atallah, 2005. "R&D cooperation with asymmetric spillovers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(3), pages 919-936, August.
    5. Mansfield, Edwin & Schwartz, Mark & Wagner, Samuel, 1981. "Imitation Costs and Patents: An Empirical Study," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 91(364), pages 907-918, December.
    6. Raymond De Bondt & Irene Henriques, 1995. "Strategic Investment with Asymmetric Spillovers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(3), pages 656-674, August.
    7. De Bondt, Raymond, 1997. "Spillovers and innovative activities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-28, February.
    8. Vania Sena, 2004. "The Return of the Prince of Denmark: A Survey on Recent Developments in the Economics of Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(496), pages 312-332, June.
    9. De Bondt, Raymond & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1991. "Strategic investment with spillovers," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 345-366, October.
    10. De Bondt, Raymond & Slaets, Patrick & Cassiman, Bruno, 1992. "The degree of spillovers and the number of rivals for maximum effective R &D," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 35-54, March.
    11. Federico Etro, 2004. "Innovation by leaders," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(495), pages 281-303, April.
    12. Morton I. Kamien & Israel Zang, 1990. "The Limits of Monopolization Through Acquisition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 465-499.
    13. Crampes, Claude & Langinier, Corinne, 2003. "Following the Follower in the Innovation Game," IDEI Working Papers 216, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Raymond De Bondt & Jan Vandekerckhove, 2012. "Reflections on the Relation Between Competition and Innovation," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 7-19, March.
    2. Stéphane Lhuillery, 2011. "Absorptive capacity, efficiency effect and competitors’ spillovers," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 649-663, October.
    3. Cristiano, Antonelli & Ferraris, Gianluigi, 2009. "Innovation as an Emerging System Property: an Agent Based Model," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis LEI & BRICK - Laboratory of Economics of Innovation "Franco Momigliano", Bureau of Research in Innovation, Complexity and Knowledge, Collegio 200911, University of Turin.
    4. Deming Zeng & Luyun Xu & Xia-an Bi, 2017. "Effects of asymmetric knowledge spillovers on the stability of horizontal and vertical R&D cooperation," Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 32-60, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cost-reducing R&D; Sequential game; Cooperation; Asymmetric spillovers; Asymmetric spillovers; JEL Classification ; D72; D43; L13;

    JEL classification:

    • D72 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Political Processes: Rent-seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

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