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The Defence Spending-External Debt Nexus In Ethiopia

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  • Yemane Wolde-Rufael

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of defence spending and income on the evolution of Ethiopia's external debt over the period 1970-2005. Using the bounds test approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests, we find a long run and a causal relationship between external debt, defence spending and income. Defence spending had a positive and a significant impact on the stock of external debt while income had a negative and a statistically significant impact on external debt. Our findings suggest that an increase in defence spending contributes to the accumulation of Ethiopia's external debt, while an increase in economic growth helps Ethiopia to reduce its external debt.

Suggested Citation

  • Yemane Wolde-Rufael, 2009. "The Defence Spending-External Debt Nexus In Ethiopia," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(5), pages 423-436, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:20:y:2009:i:5:p:423-436
    DOI: 10.1080/03066150902868171
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Shahbaz & Ilhan Ozturk & Amjad Ali, 2015. "Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth Causality Revisited: Evidence from Turkey," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(4), pages 176-193, December.
    2. repec:pje:journl:article10ii is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Rehman, Mobeen Ur & Hurr, Maryam & Zakaria, Muhammad, 2014. "Do Economic and Financial Development Increase Carbon Emission in Pakistan: Empirical Analysis through ARDL Cointegration and VECM Causality," MPRA Paper 60310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shabbir, Muhammad Shahbaz & Malik, Muhammad Nasir & Wolters, Mark Edward, 2013. "An analysis of a causal relationship between economic growth and terrorism in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 21-29.
    5. Muhammad Shahbaz & Muhammad shahbaz Shabbir & Muhammad sabihuddin Butt, 2016. "Does Military Spending Explode External Debt in Pakistan?," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(5), pages 718-741, September.
    6. Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2013. "Linkages between inflation, economic growth and terrorism in Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 496-506.
    7. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Farooq, Abdul, 2013. "Natural gas consumption and economic growth in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 18(C), pages 87-94.
    8. Muhammad Nasir & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2015. "War on terror: Do military measures matter? Empirical analysis of post 9/11 period in Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(5), pages 1969-1984, September.
    9. Muhammad, Shahbaz & V G R, Chandran & Pervaiz, Azeem, 2011. "Natural gas consumption and economic growth: cointegration, causality and forecast error variance decomposition tests for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 35103, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Nov 2011.
    10. Eftychia Nikolaidou, 2016. "The role of military expenditure and arms imports in the Greek debt crisis," Economics of Peace and Security Journal, EPS Publishing, vol. 11(1), pages 18-27, April.
    11. Muhammad Shahbaz & Faridul Islam & Naveed Aamir, 2012. "Is devaluation contractionary? Empirical evidence for Pakistan," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 299-316, November.
    12. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shabbir, Shahbaz Muhammad, 2011. "Is hike in inflation responsible for rise in terrorism in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 31236, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 29 May 2011.
    13. Zhang, Xiaoyan & Chang, Tsangyao & Su, Chi-Wei & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2016. "Revisit causal nexus between military spending and debt: A panel causality test," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 939-944.
    14. Tang, Chor Foon & Aviral Kumar, Tiwari & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2016. "Dynamic Inter-relationships among tourism, economic growth and energy consumption in India," MPRA Paper 69848, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 04 Mar 2016.
    15. repec:spr:qualqt:v:51:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11135-016-0360-z is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Muhammad, Nasir Malik & Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir, 2011. "Does economic growth cause terrorism in Pakistan?," MPRA Paper 35101, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Nov 2011.
    17. Muhanji, Stella & Ojah, Kalu, 2016. "Governance infrastructure and indebtedness of African countries: Do regional blocs matter?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 123-153.
    18. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-289 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. W. Robert J. Alexander, 2013. "The Defence-Debt Nexus: Evidence From The High-Income Members Of Nato," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 133-145, April.

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