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The Relationship Between External Debt, Defence Expenditures And Gnp Revisited: The Case Of Turkey

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  • Erdal Karagol

Abstract

This paper extends the Looney and Frederiksen (1986) study and investigates the relationship among external debt, defence expenditures and GNP in Turkey for 1960-2002. After applying cointegration analysis of a multivariate system of equations, impulse response functions and variance decomposition are estimated. The impulse response functions indicate that defence expenditures have a positive effect on external debt stock. Moreover, impulse response of GNP to defence expenditures tended to hike slightly within two years ahead, and dipped sharply by two years, and thereafter continued at a positive level.

Suggested Citation

  • Erdal Karagol, 2006. "The Relationship Between External Debt, Defence Expenditures And Gnp Revisited: The Case Of Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 47-57.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:17:y:2006:i:1:p:47-57 DOI: 10.1080/10242690500369199
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Catherine Pattillo & Hélène Poirson & Luca Antonio Ricci, 2011. "External Debt and Growth," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia.
    2. Michael Brzoska, 1983. "Research Communication: The Military Related External Debt of Third World Countries," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 20(3), pages 271-277, September.
    3. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    4. Erdal Karagol, 2002. "The Causality Analysis of External Debt Service and GNP : The Case of Turkey," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 2(1), pages 39-64.
    5. Selami Sezgin, 2004. "An empirical note on external debt and defence expenditures in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 199-203, April.
    6. Erdal Karagol, 2005. "Defence expenditures and external debt in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 117-125.
    7. Borensztein, Eduardo, 1990. "Debt overhang, credit rationing and investment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 315-335.
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    Cited by:

    1. Manamperi, Nimantha, 2016. "Does military expenditure hinder economic growth? Evidence from Greece and Turkey," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1171-1193.
    2. Tiwari, Aviral & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2011. "Does Defence Spending Stimulate Economic Growth in India?," MPRA Paper 30880, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Apr 2011.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Leitão, Nuno Carlos & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2013. "Should Portuguese economy invest in defense spending? A revisit," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 805-815.
    4. Muhammad Shahbaz & Muhammad shahbaz Shabbir & Muhammad sabihuddin Butt, 2016. "Does Military Spending Explode External Debt in Pakistan?," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 718-741.
    5. Abdul Jalil & Hafiz Khuram Nadeem Abbasi & Nazia Bibi, 2016. "Military expenditures and economic growth: allowing structural breaks in time series analysis in the case of India and Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, pages 1487-1505.
    6. Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 289-301.
    7. Andreou Andreas S. & Zombanakis George A. & Migiakis Petros M., 2013. "On Defence Expenditure Reduction: Balancing Between Austerity and Security in Greece," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 19(3), pages 437-458, December.
    8. Mehmet Akif Destek & Ilyas Okumus, 2016. "Military Expenditure and Economic Growth in Brics and Mist Countries: Evidence from Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 14(2), pages 175-186.
    9. Paresh Kumar Narayan & Russell Smyth, 2007. "The Military Expenditure-External Debt Nexus: New Evidence From A Panel Of Middle Eastern Countries," Monash Economics Working Papers 17-07, Monash University, Department of Economics.
    10. Yemane Wolde-Rufael, 2009. "The Defence Spending-External Debt Nexus In Ethiopia," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 423-436.
    11. Zhang, Xiaoyan & Chang, Tsangyao & Su, Chi-Wei & Wolde-Rufael, Yemane, 2016. "Revisit causal nexus between military spending and debt: A panel causality test," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 939-944.
    12. repec:spr:qualqt:v:51:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s11135-016-0360-z is not listed on IDEAS
    13. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-380 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. W. Robert J. Alexander, 2013. "The Defence-Debt Nexus: Evidence From The High-Income Members Of Nato," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 133-145.
    15. Muhammad Shahbaz & Talat Afza & Muhammad Shahbaz Shabbir, 2013. "Does Defence Spending Impede Economic Growth? Cointegration And Causality Analysis For Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, pages 105-120.
    16. Chen, Pei-Fen & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin, 2014. "The nexus between defense expenditure and economic growth: New global evidence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 474-483.

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    Keywords

    External debt; Defence expenditures; GNP; Turkey;

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