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Is export diversification good for profitability? First evidence for manufacturing enterprises in Germany

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  • Joachim Wagner

Abstract

This article uses a tailor-made newly available data set for enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany to investigate for the first time the links between export diversification over destination countries and goods on the one hand and the profitability of the exporting firms on the other hand. We find that profits tend to be larger in firms with less diversified export sales over goods and in firms with more diversified export sales over destination countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Joachim Wagner, 2014. "Is export diversification good for profitability? First evidence for manufacturing enterprises in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(33), pages 4083-4090, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:46:y:2014:i:33:p:4083-4090
    DOI: 10.1080/00036846.2014.950797
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Wagner, Joachim, 2002. "The causal effects of exports on firm size and labor productivity: first evidence from a matching approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 287-292, October.
    2. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 1997. "Exports and success in German manufacturing," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(1), pages 134-157, March.
    3. Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Export Entry, Export Exit and Productivity in German Manufacturing Industries," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 169-180.
    4. Melitz, Marc J. & Redding, Stephen J., 2014. "Heterogeneous Firms and Trade," Handbook of International Economics, Elsevier.
    5. Joachim Wagner, 2012. "Exports, Imports and Profitability: First Evidence for Manufacturing Enterprises," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 23(5), pages 747-765, November.
    6. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813109698_0007 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen & Stephen J. Redding & Peter K. Schott, 2012. "The Empirics of Firm Heterogeneity and International Trade," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 4(1), pages 283-313, July.
    8. Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Do Exporters Really Pay Higher Wages? First Evidence from German Linked Employer–Employee Data," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 5, pages 177-213 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    9. Bernard, Andrew B. & Bradford Jensen, J., 1999. "Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-25, February.
    10. Joachim Wagner, 2006. "Exports, foreign direct investment, and productivity: evidence from German firm level data," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(6), pages 347-349.
    11. Helmut Fryges & Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Exports and Profitability — First Evidence for German Manufacturing Firms," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 7, pages 245-277 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Why Some Firms Export," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 561-569, May.
    13. Andrew Bernard & Joachim Wagner, 2001. "Export entry and exit by German firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 137(1), pages 105-123, March.
    14. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813109698_0006 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Helmut Fryges & Joachim Wagner, 2008. "Exports and Productivity Growth: First Evidence from a Continuous Treatment Approach," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(4), pages 695-722, December.
    16. Joachim Wagner, 2012. "International trade and firm performance: a survey of empirical studies since 2006," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 148(2), pages 235-267, June.
    17. Braakmann Nils & Wagner Joachim, 2011. "Product Diversification and Profitability in German Manufacturing Firms," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 231(3), pages 326-335, June.
    18. Thorsten Schank & Claus Schnabel & Joachim Wagner, 2016. "Higher Wages in Exporting Firms: Self-selection, Export Effect, or Both? First Evidence from Linked Employer–Employee Data," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Microeconometrics of International Trade, chapter 6, pages 215-241 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    19. Joachim Wagner, 2008. "A note on why more West than East German firms export," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 363-370, December.
    20. Hirsch, Seev & Lev, Baruch, 1971. "Sales Stabilization Through Export Diversification," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 53(3), pages 270-277, August.
    21. Ernest H. Hall Jr., 1995. "Corporate Diversification and Perfor Mance: An Investigation of Causality," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 20(1), pages 25-42, June.
    22. Cynthia A. Montgomery, 1994. "Corporate Diversificaton," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 163-178, Summer.
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    Cited by:

    1. Mercedes Campi & Marco Due~nas & Le Li & Huabin Wu, 2018. "Diversification, economies of scope, and exports growth of Chinese firms," Papers 1801.02681, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2018.
    2. Maria Magdalena Turek Rahoveanu & Adrian Turek Rahoveanu & Cristian Popescu & Gheorghe Adrian Zugravu, 2015. "Entrepreneurial Potential In The Territory Gal Microregion Horezu Village From The Perspective Of 2014-2020," Risk in Contemporary Economy, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, pages 397-408.
    3. Joachim Wagner, 2016. "A survey of empirical studies using transaction level data on exports and imports," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 215-225, February.
    4. repec:eee:ecosys:v:42:y:2018:i:3:p:397-413 is not listed on IDEAS

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    JEL classification:

    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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