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Market efficiency in agricultural futures markets


  • Andrew McKenzie
  • Matthew Holt


Market efficiency and unbiasedness are tested in four agricultural commodity futures markets - live cattle, hogs, corn, and soybean meal - using cointegration and error correction models with GQARCH-in-mean processes. Results indicate each market is unbiased in the long run, although cattle, hogs and corn futures markets exhibit short-run inefficiencies and pricing biases. Models for cattle and corn outperform futures prices in out-of-sample forecasting. Results also suggest short-run time-varying risk premiums in cattle and hog futures markets.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew McKenzie & Matthew Holt, 2002. "Market efficiency in agricultural futures markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(12), pages 1519-1532.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:34:y:2002:i:12:p:1519-1532
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840110102761

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Lahiani, Amine & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2013. "On the short- and long-run efficiency of energy and precious metal markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 832-844.
    2. Armah, Stephen E., 2008. "Establishing the Presence of a Risk Premium in the Cocoa Futures Market: An Econometric Analysis," 2008 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2008, Orlando, Florida 6778, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Sanders, Dwight R. & Manfredo, Mark R., 2005. "A Test of Forecast Consistency Using USDA Livestock Price Forecasts," 2005 Conference, April 18-19, 2005, St. Louis, Missouri 19042, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
    4. Wang, H. Holly & Ke, Bingfan, 2003. "Is China'S Agricultural Futures Market Efficient?," 2003 Annual Meeting, August 16-22, 2003, Durban, South Africa 25806, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Jerry Coakley & Jian Dollery & Neil Kellard, 2011. "Long memory and structural breaks in commodity futures markets," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(11), pages 1076-1113, November.
    6. Prehn, Sören & Glauben, Thomas & Loy, Jens-Peter & Pies, Ingo & Will, Matthias Georg, 2014. "The impact of long-only index funds on price discovery and market performance in agricultural futures markets
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    7. Natanelov, Valeri & McKenzie, Andrew M. & Van Huylenbroeck, Guido, 2013. "Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 504-513.
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    11. Algieri, Bernardina & Kalkuhl, Matthias, 2014. "Back to the Futures: An Assessment of Commodity Market Efficiency and Forecast Error Drivers," Discussion Papers 187159, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
    12. Vollmer, Teresa & Holst, Carsten, 2016. "Dienen Terminmarktnotierungen Für Schlachtschweine Zur Prognose Zukünftiger Preisentwicklungen?," 56th Annual Conference, Bonn, Germany, September 28-30, 2016 244806, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA).
    13. Bozic, Marin & Fortenbery, T., 2015. "Price Discovery, Volatility Spillovers and Adequacy of Speculation when Spot Prices are Stationary: The Case of U.S. Dairy Markets," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211369, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Ying-Foon Chow, 2001. "Arbitrage, Risk Premium, and Cointegration Tests of the Efficiency of Futures Markets," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(5-6), pages 693-713.
    15. H. Holly Wang & Bingfan Ke, 2005. "Efficiency tests of agricultural commodity futures markets in China," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 49(2), pages 125-141, June.
    16. Joseph, Anto & Sisodia, Garima & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar, 2014. "A frequency domain causality investigation between futures and spot prices of Indian commodity markets," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 250-258.
    17. Joseph, Kishore & Garcia, Philip & Peterson, Paul E., 2016. "Does the Boxed Beef Price Inform the Live Cattle Futures Price?," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts 236166, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    18. Jabir Ali & Kriti Bardhan Gupta, 2011. "Efficiency in agricultural commodity futures markets in India: Evidence from cointegration and causality tests," Agricultural Finance Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 71(2), pages 162-178, August.
    19. Ramaprasad Bhar & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2006. "Component structures of agricultural commodity futures traded on the Tokyo Grain Exchange," Asia-Pacific Financial Markets, Springer;Japanese Association of Financial Economics and Engineering, vol. 13(1), pages 1-9, March.
    20. Krzysztof Borowski & Malgorzata Lukasik, 2015. "Analysis of Selected Seasonality Effects in the Following Agricultural Markets: Corn, Wheat, Coffee, Cocoa, Sugar, Cotton and Soybeans," Eurasian Journal of Business and Management, Eurasian Publications, vol. 3(2), pages 12-37.
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    22. Schnake, Kristin N. & Karali, Berna & Dorfman, Jeffrey H., 2012. "The Informational Content of Distant-Delivery Futures Contracts," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 37(2), August.
    23. Carcano, G. & Falbo, P. & Stefani, S., 2005. "Speculative trading in mean reverting markets," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 163(1), pages 132-144, May.
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    25. Mazouz, Khelifa & Wang, Jian, 2014. "Are commodity futures markets short-term efficient? An empirical investigation," 88th Annual Conference, April 9-11, 2014, AgroParisTech, Paris, France 169763, Agricultural Economics Society.

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