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Spain: from massive immigration to vast emigration?

Author

Listed:
  • Mario Izquierdo

    (Banco de España)

  • Juan F. Jimeno

    (Banco de España)

  • Aitor Lacuesta

    () (Banco de España)

Abstract

Abstract Large immigration flows during the 1995–2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Spaniards born in Spain and foreigners that entered in Spain during the last 20 years. Second, we estimate the importance of past network effects of foreigners and the recent network effects of Spaniards in shaping these migration flows. Finally, we will use these estimations to conjecture that the rapid creation of networks of Spaniards abroad might keep their emigration rates growing, thus counterbalancing the effects of outflows due to the recent fall in the unemployment rate.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Izquierdo & Juan F. Jimeno & Aitor Lacuesta, 2016. "Spain: from massive immigration to vast emigration?," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-20, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:izamig:v:5:y:2016:i:1:d:10.1186_s40176-016-0058-y
    DOI: 10.1186/s40176-016-0058-y
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G, 2002. "What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3559, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Brücker, Herbert & Bertoli, Simone & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús, 2013. "The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79693, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    3. Beine, M. & Bricongne,J-C. & Bourgeon, P., 2013. "Aggregate Fluctuations and International Migration," Working papers 453, Banque de France.
    4. Antolin, Pablo & Bover, Olympia, 1997. "Regional Migration in Spain: The Effect of Personal Characteristics and of Unemployment, Wage and House Price Differentials Using Pooled Cross-Sections," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 59(2), pages 215-235, May.
    5. Pedersen, Peder J. & Pytlikova, Mariola & Smith, Nina, 2008. "Selection and network effects--Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1160-1186, October.
    6. Bertoli, S. & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, J. & Ortega, F., 2013. "Crossing the border: Self-selection, earnings and individual migration decisions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 75-91.
    7. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
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    1. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2017:n:403 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Migration inflows and outflows; Unemployment; Networks;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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