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Red Cards


  • Mario Mechtel
  • Agnes Bäker
  • Tobias Brändle
  • Karin Vetter


A popular soccer myth states that teams affected by a sending-off perform better than they would have performed without it. Based on economic theory, the authors analyze the course of soccer matches using data from the German Bundesliga from 1999 to 2009. The results show that sending-offs against home teams have a negative impact on their performance. However, for guest teams, the impact depends on the time remaining after the sending-off and can be positive if the sending-off occurs late in the game. Thus, the “ten do it better†myth seems to hold for guest teams to a certain extent.

Suggested Citation

  • Mario Mechtel & Agnes Bäker & Tobias Brändle & Karin Vetter, 2011. "Red Cards," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 12(6), pages 621-646, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:jospec:v:12:y:2011:i:6:p:621-646

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Cerveny, Jakub & van Ours, Jan C. & van Tuijl, Martin A., 2016. "Effects of a Red Card on Goal-Scoring in World Cup Football Matches," IZA Discussion Papers 10174, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Barry Reilly & Robert Witt, 2016. "Disciplinary Sanction and Social Pressure in English Premiership Soccer," Working Paper Series 8816, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    3. Bäker Agnes & Vetter Karin & Mechtel Mario, 2012. "Beating thy Neighbor: Derby Effects in German Professional Soccer," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 232(3), pages 224-246, June.


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