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Ten Do It Better, Do They? An Empirical Analysis of an Old Football Myth

Author

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  • Caliendo, Marco

    (University of Potsdam)

  • Radic, Dubravko

    (University of Wuppertal)

Abstract

In this paper we investigate how the expulsion of a player influences the outcome of a football match. Common sense implies a negative impact for the affected team. However, an old football myth suggests that such an expulsion might also be beneficial since it increases the team spirit as well as the efforts of the affected team. We make use of a unique dataset containing all games played in a World Cup Championship between 1930 and 2002 and follow a twofold econometric strategy: We start with a conditional maximum likelihood estimator which is independent of the relative strength of the teams before we extend this estimator to take the relative strength of the teams and the minute of the expulsion into account. Our results indicate that the scoring intensities of both teams do not differ after the expulsion. Conducting scenario analysis reveals that the impact of a red card depends on the minute of the expulsion and does not have an impact at all if given at the end of the first half or later.

Suggested Citation

  • Caliendo, Marco & Radic, Dubravko, 2006. "Ten Do It Better, Do They? An Empirical Analysis of an Old Football Myth," IZA Discussion Papers 2158, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2158
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fiona Carmichael & Dennis Thomas, 2005. "Home-Field Effect and Team Performance," Journal of Sports Economics, , vol. 6(3), pages 264-281, August.
    2. Luis Garicano & Ignacio Palacios-Huerta & Canice Prendergast, 2005. "Favoritism Under Social Pressure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 87(2), pages 208-216, May.
    3. Dohmen, Thomas, 2005. "Social Pressure Influences Decisions of Individuals: Evidence from the Behavior of Football Referees," IZA Discussion Papers 1595, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
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    Cited by:

    1. Babatunde Buraimo & David Forrest & Robert Simmons, 2007. "The Twelfth Man? Refereeing Bias in English and German Soccer," Working Papers 0707, International Association of Sports Economists;North American Association of Sports Economists.
    2. Bäker Agnes & Vetter Karin & Mechtel Mario, 2012. "Beating thy Neighbor: Derby Effects in German Professional Soccer," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 232(3), pages 224-246, June.
    3. Jakub Červený & Jan C. Ours & Martin A. Tuijl, 2018. "Effects of a red card on goal-scoring in World Cup football matches," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 883-903, September.
    4. Mechtel, Mario & Brändle, Tobias & Stribeck, Agnes & Vetter, Karin, 2010. "Red Cards: Not Such Bad News For Penalized Guest Teams," MPRA Paper 21430, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. De Meyere, Arne & Vanruymbeke, Ward & Baert, Stijn, 2018. "Player Dismissal and Full Time Results in the UEFA Champions League and Europa League," IZA Discussion Papers 11722, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Poisson process; (un)conditional likelihood; football; red card effect;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C40 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - General
    • Z00 - Other Special Topics - - General - - - General

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