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Increasing the Sustainability of Museums through International Strategy


  • Izabela Luiza POP

    () (Babes-Bolyai University, Romania)

  • Anca BORZA

    () (Babes-Bolyai University, Romania)


Museums use resources in order to provide public goods and services. The most important sources of income for many museums are budgetary subsidies. Unfortunately, these grants are limited and shrinking. In this context, during the last years the need for sustainable development of museums was stressed. In order to continue to operate, museums were forced to find ways of increasing their own income and keeping their costs under control. Thus museums have begun to use management and marketing strategies similar to those used by private companies. This paper examines the positive effects of international strategy implementation on museums’ sustainability. The first part of the paper explains why it is necessary to reform the traditional management of museums, which its main development directions are, what the sustainable development of museums is and why they should become sustainable. In the second part our research conducted on three museums (Guggenheim, Louvre, Hermitage) shows that international expansion helps museums to increase their sustainability. The international strategy enables museums to increase their revenue, through licensing agreements, reduce their storage costs, highlight their heritage, improve their market image and be closer to consumers. Thus, through a strategy applied until recently only in the private sector, museums can improve their sustainability, but also better fulfill their purpose of serving the society.

Suggested Citation

  • Izabela Luiza POP & Anca BORZA, 2014. "Increasing the Sustainability of Museums through International Strategy," Economia. Seria Management, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 17(2), pages 248-264, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:rom:econmn:v:17:y:2014:i:2:p:248-264

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rãzvan-Andrei Corboª & Ruxandra-Irina Popescu, 2012. "Orsay Museum - Successful Model For Raising Competitiveness In The Romanian Cultural Organizations," Proceedings of the INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 6(1), pages 474-482, November.
    2. Martin Feldstein, 1991. "Introduction to "The Economics of Art Museums"," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Art Museums, pages 1-12, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Beatriz Plaza & Silke N. Haarich, 2015. "The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao: Between Regional Embeddedness and Global Networking," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(8), pages 1456-1475, August.
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    5. Beatriz Plaza, 2006. "The Return on Investment of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(2), pages 452-467, June.
    6. Rãzvan-Andrei CORBOª & Ruxandra-Irina POPESCU, 2012. "Study regarding the National Museum of Art of Romania Visitors` Perception on Improving Its Competitiveness," REVISTA ADMINISTRATIE SI MANAGEMENT PUBLIC, Faculty of Administration and Public Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 2012(19), pages 62-84, December.
    7. Martin Feldstein, 1991. "The Economics of Art Museums," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number feld91-1.
    8. AfDB AfDB, . "AfDB Group Annual Report 2005," Annual Report, African Development Bank, number 61 edited by Koua Louis Kouakou, March.
    9. Alcaraz, Celeste & Hume, Margee & Mort, Gillian Sullivan, 2009. "Creating sustainable practice in a museum context: Adopting service-centricity in non-profit museums," Australasian marketing journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 219-225.
    10. Arjo Klamer, 2011. "Cultural entrepreneurship," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 24(2), pages 141-156, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Pop, Izabela Luiza & Borza, Anca, 2016. "Technological innovations in museums as a source of competitive advantage," MPRA Paper 76811, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Che-Chuan Hsu & Rua-Huan Tsaih & David C. Yen, 2018. "The Evolving Role of IT Departments in Digital Transformation," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(10), pages 1-18, October.
    3. Izabela Luiza Pop & Anca Borza, 2016. "Factors Influencing Museum Sustainability and Indicators for Museum Sustainability Measurement," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(1), pages 1-22, January.
    4. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:1:p:101:d:62682 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Pop, Izabela Luiza & Florina Hahn, Rada & Michaela Radulescu, Corina, 2018. "Sustainable Development As A Source Of Competitive Advantage:An Empirical Research Study In Museums," UTMS Journal of Economics, University of Tourism and Management, Skopje, Macedonia, vol. 9(1), pages 73-83.
    6. Izabela Luiza Pop & Anca Borza & Anuța Buiga & Diana Ighian & Rita Toader, 2019. "Achieving Cultural Sustainability in Museums: A Step Toward Sustainable Development," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(4), pages 1-22, February.
    7. Pop, Izabela Luiza & Borza, Anca, 2015. "Sustainable Museums for Sustainable Development," MPRA Paper 68360, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    sustainable development; expansion; museums; licensing; international strategy.;

    JEL classification:

    • F63 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Economic Development
    • L32 - Industrial Organization - - Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise - - - Public Enterprises; Public-Private Enterprises
    • L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • M16 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - International Business Administration
    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • Q01 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - Sustainable Development
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics


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