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Costos Ambientales y Eficiencia Productiva en la Producción Agraria del Partido de Pergamino

  • Silvina M. Cabrini


    (Área de Economía y Sociología del INTA Pergamino)

  • Carlos P. Calcaterra


    (Centro Regional Buenos Aires Norte de INTA)

  • Daniel Lema


    (Instituto de Economía y Sociología (IES) del INTA)

Mediante un modelo de frontera de producción estocástica se analizó el nivel de eficiencia técnica para la producción de soja, maíz y trigo en empresas agropecuarias del partido de Pergamino, Buenos Aires, Argentina. El costo asociado a tres indicadores ambientales: balances de nutrientes, balance de materia orgánica y erosión hídrica, se consideró como parte de los insumos de producción. En promedio, la soja 1ra es el cultivo con costo ambiental más elevado, con un costo ambiental 53u$s/ha mayor que en la secuencia trigo/soja y 76 u$s/ha mayor que en maíz. Se estimó un nivel de eficiencia promedio del 85%. Si bien este valor implica la posibilidad de aumentar un 15% la producción para un mismo nivel de insumos, es un valor elevado si se lo compara con mediciones realizadas en otros sistemas agrícolas extensivos. Aunque un alto nivel de eficiencia es consistente con un buen uso de los recursos, los resultados sugieren que es posible reducir los costos ambientales de los sistemas de producción mediante cambios en la combinación de cultivos. En la actualidad existe una fuerte predominancia del cultivo de soja en toda la región agrícola de Argentina. Una mayor superficie de cultivos con menores costos ambientales podría conseguirse mediante la implementación de políticas que fomenten estas producciones.

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Article provided by Red Iberoamericana de Economía Ecológica in its journal Revista Iberoamericana de Economía Ecológica.

Volume (Year): 20 (2013)
Issue (Month): (June)
Pages: 27-43

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Handle: RePEc:rib:revibe:rev20_03
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  1. Bravo-Ureta, Boris E. & Evenson, Robert E., 1994. "Efficiency in agricultural production: the case of peasant farmers in eastern Paraguay," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 10(1), pages -, January.
  2. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
  3. Bravo-Ureta, Boris E. & Pinheiro, Antonio E., 1993. "Efficiency Analysis Of Developing Country Agriculture: A Review Of The Frontier Function Literature," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 22(1), pages -, April.
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