IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/sbusec/v45y2015i3p561-580.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Understanding the decline in self-employment among individuals nearing retirement

Author

Listed:
  • Bradley Heim

    ()

Abstract

This paper examines the sources of the decline in self-employment among near-retirees over 1994–2012. Using Current Population Survey data, tabulations imply that the decline was driven by an increase in the exit rate to wage and salary employment, a decline in the rate of self-employment among new entrants into this age cohort, and an increase in the share of these new entrants. Multinomial logits suggest that health insurance coverage and after-tax prices of health insurance were significantly associated with these three rates. However, counterfactual simulations suggest that only the changes in after-tax prices of health insurance were found to appreciably influence the trends in these rates, though in the opposite direction of the actual declining trend for the rate of self-employment of new entrants. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Bradley Heim, 2015. "Understanding the decline in self-employment among individuals nearing retirement," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 561-580, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:45:y:2015:i:3:p:561-580
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-015-9660-2
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11187-015-9660-2
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Joulfaian, David & Rosen, Harvey S, 1994. "Sticking It Out: Entrepreneurial Survival and Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(1), pages 53-75, February.
    2. Victor R. Fuchs, 1982. "Self-Employment and Labor Force Participation of Older Males," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 17(3), pages 339-357.
    3. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-827, August.
    4. Fairlie, Robert W. & Kapur, Kanika & Gates, Susan, 2011. "Is employer-based health insurance a barrier to entrepreneurship?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 146-162, January.
    5. Velamuri, Malathi, 2009. "Taxes, Health Insurance and Women's Self-Employment," MPRA Paper 50474, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2012.
    6. Hannu Tervo, 2008. "Self‐employment transitions and alternation in Finnish rural and urban labour markets," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(1), pages 55-76, March.
    7. Douglas Holtz-Eakin & David Joulfaian & Harvey S. Rosen, 1994. "Entrepreneurial Decisions and Liquidity Constraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 334-347, Summer.
    8. Bradley Heim & Ithai Lurie, 2014. "Does health reform affect self-employment? Evidence from Massachusetts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 917-930, December.
    9. Helena Svaleryd, 2015. "Self-employment and the local business cycle," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 55-70, January.
    10. Malathi Velamuri, 2012. "Taxes, Health Insurance, And Women'S Self‐Employment," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(2), pages 162-177, April.
    11. Heim, Bradley T. & Lurie, Ithai Z., 2010. "The effect of self-employed health insurance subsidies on self-employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(11-12), pages 995-1007, December.
    12. Haider, Steven J. & Klerman, Jacob Alex, 2005. "Dynamic properties of the welfare caseload," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 629-648, October.
    13. Dunn, Thomas & Holtz-Eakin, Douglas, 2000. "Financial Capital, Human Capital, and the Transition to Self-Employment: Evidence from Intergenerational Links," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(2), pages 282-305, April.
    14. Bruce D. Meyer, 1990. "Why Are There So Few Black Entrepreneurs?," NBER Working Papers 3537, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Penrod, John R. & Rosen, Harvey S., 1996. "Health insurance and the supply of entrepreneurs," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1-2), pages 209-235, October.
    16. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    17. Austin Nichols, 2007. "Causal inference with observational data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 7(4), pages 507-541, December.
    18. Zissimopoulos, Julie M. & Karoly, Lynn A., 2007. "Transitions to self-employment at older ages: The role of wealth, health, health insurance and other factors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 269-295, April.
    19. Jacob Alex Klerman & Steven J. Haider, 2004. "A Stock-Flow Analysis of the Welfare Caseload," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(4).
    20. Alison J. Wellington, 2001. "Health Insurance Coverage And Entrepreneurship," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 19(4), pages 465-478, October.
    21. Bradley T. Heim & Ithai Z. Lurie, 2014. "DID REFORM OF THE NON‐GROUP HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET AFFECT THE DECISION TO BE SELF‐EMPLOYED? EVIDENCE FROM STATE REFORMS IN THE 1990s," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(7), pages 841-860, July.
    22. Qingfang Wang & Cathy Liu, 2015. "Transnational activities of immigrant-owned firms and their performances in the USA," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 345-359, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Iyad Snunu & Nicoleta Sirghi, 2020. "Does Ethnic Affiliation Affect The Choice To Be Self-Employed? Case Study On The Labor Market In Israel," Oradea Journal of Business and Economics, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics, vol. 5(special), pages 104-114, June.
    2. David B. Audretsch & Apexa Mamtora & Hugo Menendez, 2018. "Creating an entrepreneurial society in Europe," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 43(6), pages 1437-1448, December.
    3. NAGORE GARCIA Amparo & ROSSI Cristina & VAN SOEST Arthur, 2018. "Labour Market Decisions of the Self-Employed in the Netherlands at the Statutory Retirement Age," LISER Working Paper Series 2018-13, LISER.
    4. Tommaso Minola & Giuseppe Criaco & Martin Obschonka, 2016. "Age, culture, and self-employment motivation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 187-213, February.
    5. Shanthi Ramnath & John B. Shoven & Sita Nataraj Slavov, 2017. "Pathways to Retirement through Self-Employment," NBER Working Papers 23551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Gumus, Gulcin & Regan, Tracy L., 2015. "Self-employment and the role of health insurance in the U.S," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 357-374.
    2. Frank M. Fossen & Johannes König, 2017. "Public health insurance, individual health, and entry into self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 49(3), pages 647-669, October.
    3. Fossen, Frank M. & König, Johannes, 2015. "Public health insurance and entry into self-employment," VfS Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112934, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie & Harry A. Krashinsky, 2012. "Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, And Entrepreneurship Revisited," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(2), pages 279-306, June.
    5. Lee, Jun Yeong & Winters, John V., 2020. "State Medicaid Expansion and the Self-Employed," IZA Discussion Papers 12997, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    7. Le, Nga & Groot, Wim & Tomini, Sonila & Tomini, Florian, 2018. "Health insurance and self-employment transitions in Vietnam: A multinomial analysis," MERIT Working Papers 2018-039, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    8. Zissimopoulos, Julie M. & Karoly, Lynn A., 2007. "Transitions to self-employment at older ages: The role of wealth, health, health insurance and other factors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 269-295, April.
    9. Lim, Katherine & Michelmore, Katherine, 2018. "The EITC and self-employment among married mothers," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 98-115.
    10. Le, Nga & Groot, Wim & Tomini, Sonila M. & Tomini, Florian, 2019. "Health insurance and self-employment transitions in Vietnam," MERIT Working Papers 2019-008, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    11. Robert W. Fairlie & Alicia Robb, 2007. "Families, Human Capital, and Small Business: Evidence from the Characteristics of Business Owners Survey," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(2), pages 225-245, January.
    12. Julie Zissimopoulos & Lynn A. Karoly, 2004. "Transitions to Self-Employment at Older Ages The Role of Wealth, Health, Health Insurance, and Other Factors," Working Papers WR-135, RAND Corporation.
    13. Robert W. Fairlie & Alicia M. Robb, 2007. "Why Are Black-Owned Businesses Less Successful than White-Owned Businesses? The Role of Families, Inheritances, and Business Human Capital," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25, pages 289-323.
    14. Robert W. Fairlie, 2002. "Drug Dealing and Legitimate Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 538-567, July.
    15. Liu, Lulu & Zhang, Yuting, 2018. "Does non-employment based health insurance promote entrepreneurship? Evidence from a policy experiment in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 270-283.
    16. Ellen R. Rissman, 2003. "Self-employment as an alternative to unemployment," Working Paper Series WP-03-34, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    17. González, Felipe & Marshall, Guillermo & Naidu, Suresh, 2017. "Start-up Nation? Slave Wealth and Entrepreneurship in Civil War Maryland," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 77(2), pages 373-405, June.
    18. Li, Yajuan & Palma, Marco A. & Towne, Samuel, 2017. "Does Health Insurance Provision Improve Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship? Evidence from State Insurance Mandates," 2017 Annual Meeting, July 30-August 1, Chicago, Illinois 258399, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    19. Bruce, Donald, 2000. "Effects of the United States tax system on transitions into self-employment," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 545-574, September.
    20. Robert W. Fairlie & Alicia M. Robb, 2008. "Race and Entrepreneurial Success: Black-, Asian-, and White-Owned Businesses in the United States," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026206281x, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Self-employment; Retirement; Health insurance; Taxes; Markov chain; L26; J68; I13;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • J68 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Public Policy
    • I13 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Insurance, Public and Private

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:45:y:2015:i:3:p:561-580. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.