IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jbuset/v143y2017i1d10.1007_s10551-015-2793-z.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Congruence in Corporate Social Responsibility: Connecting the Identity and Behavior of Employers and Employees

Author

Listed:
  • Debbie Haski-Leventhal

    () (Macquarie University)

  • Lonneke Roza

    () (Rotterdam School of Management)

  • Lucas C. P. M. Meijs

    () (Rotterdam School of Management)

Abstract

The multi-disciplinary interest in social responsibility on the part of individuals and organizations over the past 30 years has generated several descriptors of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and employee social responsibility (ESR). These descriptors focus largely on socially responsible behavior and, in some cases, on socially responsible identity. Very few authors have combined the two concepts in researching social responsibility. This situation can lead to an oversimplification of the concept of CSR, thereby impeding the examination of congruence between employees and organizations with regard to social responsibility. In this article, we connect two dimensions of social responsibility—identity and behavior—to build a Social Responsibility Matrix consisting of four patterns for classifying the social responsibility of employees and employers: Low Social Responsibility, Identity-based Social Responsibility, Behavior-based Social Responsibility, and Entwined Social Responsibility. The positioning of employers and employees on the same matrix (as determined by internal, relational, and/or external factors) is vital for assessing the level of congruence between employers and employees with regard to social responsibility and for discussing the possible outcomes for both parties. These identity and behavior-based patterns, determinants, and levels of congruence connecting employees and employers form the foundation for the multi-dimensional, dynamic ESR–CSR Congruence Model, as exemplified in a case study. This contribution enhances the existing literature and models of CSR, in addition to improving the understanding of employee–employer congruence, thereby broadening the array of possibilities for achieving positive organizational outcomes based on CSR.

Suggested Citation

  • Debbie Haski-Leventhal & Lonneke Roza & Lucas C. P. M. Meijs, 2017. "Congruence in Corporate Social Responsibility: Connecting the Identity and Behavior of Employers and Employees," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 143(1), pages 35-51, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:143:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10551-015-2793-z
    DOI: 10.1007/s10551-015-2793-z
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10551-015-2793-z
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. S. Hansen & Benjamin Dunford & Alan Boss & R. Boss & Ingo Angermeier, 2011. "Corporate Social Responsibility and the Benefits of Employee Trust: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 102(1), pages 29-45, August.
    2. Boas Shamir & Robert J. House & Michael B. Arthur, 1993. "The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 4(4), pages 577-594, November.
    3. Gordon Liu & Teck-Yong Eng & Wai-Wai Ko, 2013. "Strategic Direction of Corporate Community Involvement," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 115(3), pages 469-487, July.
    4. Roland Bénabou & Jean Tirole, 2010. "Individual and Corporate Social Responsibility," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 77(305), pages 1-19, January.
    5. Lucio Lamberti & Emanuele Lettieri, 2009. "CSR Practices and Corporate Strategy: Evidence from a Longitudinal Case Study," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 87(2), pages 153-168, June.
    6. Pablo Rodrigo & Daniel Arenas, 2008. "Do Employees Care About CSR Programs? A Typology of Employees According to their Attitudes," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 83(2), pages 265-283, December.
    7. Carroll, Archie B., 1991. "The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 39-48.
    8. Longinos Marin & Salvador Ruiz & Alicia Rubio, 2009. "The Role of Identity Salience in the Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Consumer Behavior," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 84(1), pages 65-78, January.
    9. Nelarine Cornelius & Mathew Todres & Shaheena Janjuha-Jivraj & Adrian Woods & James Wallace, 2008. "Corporate Social Responsibility and the Social Enterprise," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 81(2), pages 355-370, August.
    10. Craig Pearce & Charles Manz, 2011. "Leadership Centrality and Corporate Social Ir-Responsibility (CSIR): The Potential Ameliorating Effects of Self and Shared Leadership on CSIR," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 102(4), pages 563-579, September.
    11. Bryan W. Husted & José De Jesus Salazar, 2006. "Taking Friedman Seriously: Maximizing Profits and Social Performance," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 75-91, January.
    12. Thomas P. Lyon & John W. Maxwell, 2011. "Greenwash: Corporate Environmental Disclosure under Threat of Audit," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(1), pages 3-41, March.
    13. John Balmer & Kyoko Fukukawa & Edmund Gray, 2007. "The Nature and Management of Ethical Corporate Identity: A Commentary on Corporate Identity, Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 76(1), pages 7-15, November.
    14. Becker-Olsen, Karen L. & Cudmore, B. Andrew & Hill, Ronald Paul, 2006. "The impact of perceived corporate social responsibility on consumer behavior," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 46-53, January.
    15. Andrea Pérez & Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque, 2012. "The Role of CSR in the Corporate Identity of Banking Service Providers," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 108(2), pages 145-166, June.
    16. Ran Zhang & Jigao Zhu & Heng Yue & Chunyan Zhu, 2010. "Corporate Philanthropic Giving, Advertising Intensity, and Industry Competition Level," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 94(1), pages 39-52, June.
    17. Hae-Ryong Kim & Moonkyu Lee & Hyoung-Tark Lee & Na-Min Kim, 2010. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee–Company Identification," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 95(4), pages 557-569, September.
    18. Onyeka Osuji, 2011. "Fluidity of Regulation-CSR Nexus: The Multinational Corporate Corruption Example," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 103(1), pages 31-57, September.
    19. Macey, William H. & Schneider, Benjamin, 2008. "The Meaning of Employee Engagement," Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 3-30, March.
    20. Tomi Kallio, 2007. "Taboos in Corporate Social Responsibility Discourse," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 74(2), pages 165-175, August.
    21. Weaver, Gary R. & Treviño, Linda Klebe, 1999. "Compliance and Values Oriented Ethics Programs: Influenceson Employees’ Attitudes and Behavior," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(2), pages 315-335, April.
    22. Longinos Marin & Salvador Ruiz, 2007. "“I Need You Too!â€\x9D Corporate Identity Attractiveness for Consumers and The Role of Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 71(3), pages 245-260, March.
    23. Fernanda Duarte, 2010. "Working with Corporate Social Responsibility in Brazilian Companies: The Role of Managers’ Values in the Maintenance of CSR Cultures," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 96(3), pages 355-368, October.
    24. Judith Voort & Katherina Glac & Lucas Meijs, 2009. "“Managing” Corporate Community Involvement," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 90(3), pages 311-329, December.
    25. Knox, Simon & Maklan, Stan, 2004. "Corporate Social Responsibility:: Moving Beyond Investment Towards Measuring Outcomes," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(5), pages 508-516, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Petr Cech & Irena Jindrichovska & Jiri Neubauer, 2018. "Corporate Social Responsibility in Hotel Industry: Empirical Analysis of Transitional Market," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(1), pages 61-89.
    2. Tourky, Marwa & Alwi, Sharifah Faridah Syed & Kitchen, Philip & Melewar, T.C. & Shaalan, Ahmed, 2020. "New conceptualization and measurement of corporate identity: Evidence from UK food and beverage industry," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 595-606.
    3. Sora Kang & Su Jin Han & Jounghae Bang, 2018. "The Fit between Employees’ Perception and the Organization’s Behavior in Terms of Corporate Social Responsibility," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(5), pages 1-19, May.
    4. Pevnaya Maria & Cernicova-Buca Mariana, 2020. "Corporate volunteering in the large enterprises’ social mission – the case of a post-Soviet Russian industrial region," Central European Journal of Public Policy, Sciendo, vol. 14(1), pages 31-42, June.
    5. Tourky, Marwa & Kitchen, Philip & Shaalan, Ahmed, 2020. "The role of corporate identity in CSR implementation: An integrative framework," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 694-706.
    6. David A. Jones & Alexander Newman & Ruodan Shao & Fang Lee Cooke, 2019. "Advances in Employee-Focused Micro-Level Research on Corporate Social Responsibility: Situating New Contributions Within the Current State of the Literature," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 157(2), pages 293-302, June.
    7. Heung-Jun Jung & Mohammad Ali, 2017. "Corporate Social Responsibility, Organizational Justice and Positive Employee Attitudes: In the Context of Korean Employment Relations," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(11), pages 1-24, October.
    8. Yijing Wang & Vidhi Chaudhri, 2019. "Business Support for Refugee Integration in Europe: Conceptualizing the Link with Organizational Identification," Media and Communication, Cogitatio Press, vol. 7(2), pages 289-299.
    9. Anita Kolnhofer Derecskei & Viktor Nagy, 2020. "Employee Volunteerism—Conceptual Study and the Current Situation," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(20), pages 1-35, October.
    10. repec:ers:journl:v:vi:y:2018:i:1:p:61-89 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Flint, Daniel J. & Signori, Paola & Golicic, Susan L., 2018. "Corporate Identity Congruence: A meanings-based analysis," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 68-82.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lee, Eun Mi & Park, Seong-Yeon & Rapert, Molly I. & Newman, Christopher L., 2012. "Does perceived consumer fit matter in corporate social responsibility issues?," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 65(11), pages 1558-1564.
    2. Kenneth Roeck & François Maon, 2018. "Building the Theoretical Puzzle of Employees’ Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: An Integrative Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 149(3), pages 609-625, May.
    3. Del Bosco, Barbara & Misani, Nicola, 2011. "Keeping the enemies close: The contribution of corporate social responsibility to reducing crime against the firm," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 87-98, March.
    4. Subhajit Bhattacharya, 2017. "Does corporate social responsibility contribute to strengthen brand equity? An empirical study," International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, Springer;International Association of Public and Non-Profit Marketing, vol. 14(4), pages 513-533, December.
    5. Heung-Jun Jung & Mohammad Ali, 2017. "Corporate Social Responsibility, Organizational Justice and Positive Employee Attitudes: In the Context of Korean Employment Relations," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(11), pages 1-24, October.
    6. Kenneth Roeck & Nathalie Delobbe, 2012. "Do Environmental CSR Initiatives Serve Organizations’ Legitimacy in the Oil Industry? Exploring Employees’ Reactions Through Organizational Identification Theory," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 110(4), pages 397-412, November.
    7. Erin Cho & Jihyun Lee & Yuri Lee, 2017. "Corporate Philanthropy Affecting Consumer Patronage Behavior: The Effect of Reciprocity and the Moderating Roles of Vicarious Licensing and Strategic Fit," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(7), pages 1-15, June.
    8. Laura Marie Edinger-Schons & Lars Lengler-Graiff & Sabrina Scheidler & Jan Wieseke, 2019. "Frontline Employees as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Ambassadors: A Quasi-Field Experiment," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 157(2), pages 359-373, June.
    9. Kelsy Hejjas & Graham Miller & Caroline Scarles, 2019. "“It’s Like Hating Puppies!” Employee Disengagement and Corporate Social Responsibility," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 157(2), pages 319-337, June.
    10. Izaskun Agirre Aramburu & Irune Gómez Pescador, 2019. "The Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility on Customer Loyalty: The Mediating Effect of Reputation in Cooperative Banks Versus Commercial Banks in the Basque Country," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 154(3), pages 701-719, February.
    11. Carmen Berné-Manero & Marta Pedraja-Iglesias & Pilar Ramo-Sáez, 2017. "Socially responsible markets involved in the consumer-organization identification process," International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, Springer;International Association of Public and Non-Profit Marketing, vol. 14(2), pages 179-196, June.
    12. Jie Shen & Hongru Zhang, 2019. "Socially Responsible Human Resource Management and Employee Support for External CSR: Roles of Organizational CSR Climate and Perceived CSR Directed Toward Employees," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 156(3), pages 875-888, May.
    13. Seunghee Im & Yang Woon Chung & Ji Yeon Yang, 2016. "Employees’ Participation in Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Person–CSR Fit," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-14, December.
    14. S. Hansen & Benjamin Dunford & Alan Boss & R. Boss & Ingo Angermeier, 2011. "Corporate Social Responsibility and the Benefits of Employee Trust: A Cross-Disciplinary Perspective," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 102(1), pages 29-45, August.
    15. Som Sekhar Bhattacharyya & Sumi Jha & Dinesh Sharma, 2020. "Development of a Scale on Individual Perspectives on Corporate Social Responsibility Constructs: Based on Microfoundation Theory," Vision, , vol. 24(1), pages 47-59, March.
    16. Becky R. Ford & Cynthia Stohl, 2019. "Does CSR Matter? A longitudinal analysis of product reviews for CSR-associated brands," Journal of Brand Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 26(1), pages 60-70, January.
    17. João Guerreiro & Paulo Rita & Duarte Trigueiros, 2016. "A Text Mining-Based Review of Cause-Related Marketing Literature," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 139(1), pages 111-128, November.
    18. Newman, Carol & Rand, John & Tarp, Finn & Trifkovic, Neda, 2018. "The transmission of socially responsible behaviour through international trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 250-267.
    19. Yuhei Inoue & Aubrey Kent, 2014. "A Conceptual Framework for Understanding the Effects of Corporate Social Marketing on Consumer Behavior," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 121(4), pages 621-633, June.
    20. Henri Kuokkanen & William Sun, 2020. "Companies, Meet Ethical Consumers: Strategic CSR Management to Impact Consumer Choice," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 166(2), pages 403-423, October.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:143:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10551-015-2793-z. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.