IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/fip/fedder/y1994iqivp1-14.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Would the addition of bond or equity funds make M2 a better indicator of nominal GDP?

Author

Listed:
  • John V. Duca

Abstract

John Duca assesses the possibility that adding bond mutual funds, equity mutual funds, or both to M2 would improve this monetary aggregate's ability to forecast nominal GDP growth. He finds that M2B (M2 plus bond funds) and M2+ (M2 plus bond and stock funds) are statistically significant in explaining past nominal GDP growth. Duca further shows that M2B and M2+ each yield better forecasts of nominal GDP growth since 1990 than does M2, but to a lesser extent when the federal funds rate and the ten-year Treasury note yield are included in his forecasting model. Because bond and equity mutual funds are less directly influenced by the Federal Reserve than M2, Duca cautions that, relative to M2, M2B and M2+ are likely to be less controllable by the Federal Reserve. ; Given these findings, Duca argues that M2B and M2+ show promise as information variables that the Federal Reserve may use along with other economic indicators in setting monetary policy. Recent forecast results and anecdotal information suggest that if equity funds continue to become more substitutable for nontransactions deposits, M2+ may prove to be increasingly helpful in this capacity.

Suggested Citation

  • John V. Duca, 1994. "Would the addition of bond or equity funds make M2 a better indicator of nominal GDP?," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q IV, pages 1-14.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedder:y:1994:i:qiv:p:1-14
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/er/1994/er9404a.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Athanasios Orphanides & Brian Reid & David H. Small, 1994. "The empirical properties of a monetary aggregate that adds bond and stock funds to M2," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 31-51.
    2. Ben S. Bernanke, 1990. "On the predictive power of interest rates and interest rate spreads," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Nov, pages 51-68.
    3. Flint Brayton & Peter A. Tinsley, 1993. "Interest rate policies for price stability," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 93-22, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Mark A. Wynne, 1993. "Price stability and economic growth," Southwest Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue May, pages 1-5.
    5. Hallman, Jeffrey J & Porter, Richard D & Small, David H, 1991. "Is the Price Level Tied to the M2 Monetary Aggregate in the Long Run?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 841-858, September.
    6. Feldstein, Martin & Stock, James H., 1996. "Measuring money growth when financial markets are changing," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 3-27, February.
    7. Becsi, Zsolt & Duca, John V., 1994. "Adding bond funds to M2 in the P-Star model of inflation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 143-147, October.
    8. David H. Small & Richard D. Porter, 1989. "Understanding the behavior of M2 and V2," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Apr, pages 244-254.
    9. Andrews, Donald W K, 1993. "Tests for Parameter Instability and Structural Change with Unknown Change Point," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 821-856, July.
    10. Duca, John V., 1995. "Should bond funds be added to M2?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 131-152, April.
    11. Thomas D. Simpson, 1980. "The redefined monetary aggregates," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 97-114.
    12. James H. Stock & Mark W. Watson, 1989. "New Indexes of Coincident and Leading Economic Indicators," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1989, Volume 4, pages 351-409 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Friedman, Benjamin M & Kuttner, Kenneth N, 1992. "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 472-492, June.
    14. Emery, Kenneth M., 1994. "Inflation persistence and Fisher effects: Evidence of a regime change," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 141-152, August.
    15. John V. Duca, 1993. "Regulation, bank competitiveness, and episodes of missing money," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Apr, pages 1-23.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anderson, Richard G. & Bordo, Michael & Duca, John V., 2017. "Money and velocity during financial crises: From the great depression to the great recession," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 32-49.
    2. David Cook & Woon Gyu Choi, 2007. "Financial Market Risk and U.S. Money Demand," IMF Working Papers 07/89, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Duca, John V. & VanHoose, David D., 2004. "Recent developments in understanding the demand for money," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 247-272.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gross domestic product ; Money supply;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedder:y:1994:i:qiv:p:1-14. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Amy Chapman). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbdaus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.