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The Economics of the Arab Spring

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  • Malik, Adeel
  • Awadallah, Bassem

Abstract

A singular failure of the Arab world is the absence of a private sector that is independent, competitive, and integrated with global markets. This paper argues that private sector development is both a political and regional challenge. In so far as the private sector generates incomes that are independent of the rent streams controlled by the state, it can pose a direct political challenge. It is also a regional challenge, since fragmented markets deny scale economies to firms and entrench the power of insiders. We argue that overcoming regional economic barriers constitutes the single most important collective action problem facing the region since the fall of Ottoman Empire.

Suggested Citation

  • Malik, Adeel & Awadallah, Bassem, 2013. "The Economics of the Arab Spring," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 296-313.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:45:y:2013:i:c:p:296-313
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.12.015
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Paroussos, Leonidas & Fragkiadakis, Kostas & Charalampidis, Ioannis & Tsani, Stella & Capros, Pantelis, 2015. "Macroeconomic scenarios for the south Mediterranean countries: Evidence from general equilibrium model simulation results," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 121-142.
    2. Hillman, Arye L. & Metsuyanim, Kfir & Potrafke, Niklas, 2015. "Democracy with group identity," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 40(PB), pages 274-287.
    3. Marc Schiffbauer & Abdoulaye Sy & Sahar Hussain & Hania Sahnoun & Philip Keefer, 2015. "Jobs or Privileges : Unleashing the Employment Potential of the Middle East and North Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 20591.
    4. Rougier, Eric, 2016. "“Fire in Cairo”: Authoritarian–Redistributive Social Contracts, Structural Change, and the Arab Spring," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 148-171.
    5. World Bank Group & Royal Government of Bhutan Ministry of Labor and Human Resources, 2016. "Bhutan’s Labor Market," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25703, The World Bank.
    6. Ilham Haouas & Almas Heshmati, 2015. "The Impact of Arab Spring on Hiring and Separation Rates in the Tunisian Labor Market," Working Papers 921, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2015.
    7. Betz, Frank & Ravasan, Farshad R., 2016. "Collateral regimes and missing job creation in the MENA region," EIB Working Papers 2016/03, European Investment Bank (EIB).
    8. Bob Rijkers & Leila Baghdadi & Gael Raballand, 2017. "Political Connections and Tariff Evasion Evidence from Tunisia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 31(2), pages 459-482.
    9. Carl Henrik Knutsen, 2014. "Income Growth and Revolutions," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 95(4), pages 920-937, December.
    10. repec:eee:ecanpo:v:55:y:2017:i:c:p:106-123 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:bla:sajeco:v:85:y:2017:i:2:p:259-278 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Shima'a Hanafy, 2015. "Sectoral FDI and Economic Growth — Evidence from Egyptian Governorates," MAGKS Papers on Economics 201537, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics, Department of Economics (Volkswirtschaftliche Abteilung).
    13. Faria, João Ricardo & McAdam, Peter, 2015. "Macroeconomic adjustment under regime change: From social contract to Arab Spring," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-22.
    14. Assaad, Ragui & Krafft, Caroline, 2017. "Excluded Generation: The Growing Challenges of Labor Market Insertion for Egyptian Youth," IZA Discussion Papers 10970, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    15. El-Masry, Ahmed A. & de Mingo-López, Diego Víctor & Matallín-Sáez, Juan Carlos & Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2016. "Environmental conditions, fund characteristics, and Islamic orientation: An analysis of mutual fund performance for the MENA region," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 132(S), pages 174-197.
    16. Chekir Hamouda & Diwan Ishac, 2014. "Crony Capitalism in Egypt," Journal of Globalization and Development, De Gruyter, vol. 5(2), pages 177-211, December.
    17. Herrala, Risto & Turk-Ariss, Rima, 2016. "Capital accumulation in a politically unstable region," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 1-15.
    18. repec:eee:techno:v:68:y:2017:i:c:p:44-55 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. AfDB AfDB, 2016. "North Africa - Working paper - From Resource Curse to Rent Curse in the MENA Region," Working Paper Series 2326, African Development Bank.
    20. Ishac Diwan & Tarik Akin, 2015. "Fifty Years of Fiscal Policy in the Arab Region," Working Papers 914, Economic Research Forum, revised May 2015.
    21. repec:eee:finsta:v:31:y:2017:i:c:p:18-44 is not listed on IDEAS

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