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Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950

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  • Tarik M. Yousef

Abstract

The September 11 terrorist attacks ignited global interest in the Middle East. Observers in the region and abroad were quick to highlight the development "deficits" in Middle Eastern countries which have been linked to everything from structural economic imbalances to deficient political systems, the curse of natural resources, and even culture and religion. This paper reviews the development history of the Middle East and North Africa region in the post-World War II era, providing a framework for understanding past outcomes, current challenges and the potential for economic and political reform.

Suggested Citation

  • Tarik M. Yousef, 2004. "Development, Growth and Policy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa since 1950," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 91-115, Summer.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:jecper:v:18:y:2004:i:3:p:91-115
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/0895330042162322
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    File URL: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/0895330042162322
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. James A. Robinson, 2009. "The Political Economy of Inequality," Working Papers 493, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2009.
    2. Schilirò, Daniele, 2013. "Diversification and development of the UAE’s economy," MPRA Paper 47089, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Rougier, Eric, 2016. "“Fire in Cairo”: Authoritarian–Redistributive Social Contracts, Structural Change, and the Arab Spring," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 148-171.
    4. repec:bla:etrans:v:25:y:2017:i:2:p:351-373 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Weiffen, Brigitte, 2008. "Liberalizing Autocracies in the Gulf Region? Reform Strategies in the Face of a Cultural-Economic Syndrome," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(12), pages 2586-2604, December.
    6. repec:wsi:medjxx:v:01:y:2009:i:02:n:s1793812009000085 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Emara, Noha & Jhonsa, Eric, 2014. "Governance and economic growth: The case of Middle Eastern and North African countries," MPRA Paper 68683, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Dalila NICET-CHENAF & Eric ROUGIER, 2014. "What is so specific with Middle-East and North-African pattern of growth and structural change? A quantitative comparative analysis," Cahiers du GREThA 2014-23, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
    9. Olivier Parent & Abdallah Zouache, 2009. "Geographical Features vs. Institutional Factors : New Perspectives on the Growth of Africa and Middle-East," Post-Print hal-00430382, HAL.
    10. Joao Ricardo Faria & Peter McAdam, 2013. "From Social Contract to Arab Spring: Macroeconomic Adjustment under Regime Change," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0813, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    11. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani & Insan Tunali & Ragui Assaad, 2009. "A Comparative Study Of Returns To Education Of Urban Men In Egypt, Iran, And Turkey," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(02), pages 145-187.
    12. Veronica Kostenko & Eduard Ponarin & Musa Shteiwi & Olga Strebkova, 2017. "Historical Legacies and Gender Attitudes in the Middle East," Working Papers 1105, Economic Research Forum, revised 05 2017.
    13. Malik, Adeel & Awadallah, Bassem, 2013. "The Economics of the Arab Spring," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 296-313.
    14. Wang, Miao & Wong, M. C. Sunny, 2012. "International R&D Transfer and Technical Efficiency: Evidence from Panel Study Using Stochastic Frontier Analysis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1982-1998.
    15. Ghulam Akhmat & Khalid Zaman & Tan Shukui & Yasir Javed & Shaina Khan, 2014. "Social Health Indicators and Economic Growth: Evidence from East Asia and Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 119(2), pages 663-686, November.
    16. Adeel Malik, 2016. "The Political Economy of Macroeconomic Policy in Arab Resource-Rich Economies," Working Papers 1034, Economic Research Forum, revised Aug 2016.
    17. Adeel Malik, 2017. "The Political Economy of Macroeconomic Policy in Arab Resource- Rich Economies," Working Papers 1117, Economic Research Forum, revised 07 Jun 2017.
    18. Faria, João Ricardo & McAdam, Peter, 2015. "Macroeconomic adjustment under regime change: From social contract to Arab Spring," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 1-22.
    19. Daniele SCHILIRÒ, 2013. "Diversification And Development Of The United Arab Emirates' Economy," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences Quarterly, ASERS Publishing, vol. 0(2), pages 228-239, July.
    20. Guetat, Imene & Serranito, Francisco, 2007. "Income convergence within the MENA countries: A panel unit root approach," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(5), pages 685-706, February.
    21. Steffen Hertog, 2016. "Is There an Arab Variety of Capitalism?," Working Papers 1068, Economic Research Forum, revised 12 Jun 2016.
    22. Djavad Salehi-Isfahani, 2009. "Education and Earnings in The Middle East: A Comparative Study of Returns To Schooling in Egypt, Iran, and Turkey," Working Papers 504, Economic Research Forum, revised Sep 2009.
    23. Mehdi Ben Guirat & Corinne Pastoret, 2012. "Breaking the Economic Dependence of Developing Countries to Promote Economic Development and Full Employment: The Case of the Maghreb Countries," Chapters,in: Employment, Growth and Development, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.

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