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International comparisons of rural-urban educational attainment: data and determinants


  • Ulubasoglu, Mehmet
  • Cardak, Buly


We study cross‐country differences in rural and urban educational attainment by using a data set for a diverse group of 56 countries. Utilizing human capital, labor market and migration theories, we identify national, rural and urban factors that are expected to influence rural and urban households in their educational choices. We apply our theoretical arguments to a dataset that we construct from data available in UNESCO Educational Yearbooks (1964‐1999). We find that improved access to labor markets and lower risks associated with human capital investment reduce the disparities in the ratio and the levels of rural and urban schooling years. Importantly, countries with higher amount of resources and with better institutional framework to allocate such resources have lower rural‐urban inequality in education. We also find that the impact of credit availabilities, type of legal system, geography and religion on the rural‐urban educational inequality are related to the level of economic development.
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(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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  • Ulubasoglu, Mehmet & Cardak, Buly, 2005. "International comparisons of rural-urban educational attainment: data and determinants," Economics Series eco_2005_01, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:dkn:econwp:eco_2005_01

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Tom Coupe & Anna Olefir & Juan Diego Alonso, 2011. "Is Optimization an Opportunity? An Assessment of the Impact of Class Size and School Size on the Performance of Ukrainian Secondary Schools," Discussion Papers 44, Kyiv School of Economics.
    2. Ignacio García-Pérez, J. & Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Marisa, 2017. "No student left behind? Evidence from the Programme for School Guidance in Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 97-111.
    3. Warning, Susanne & Dürrenberger, Nicole, 2015. "Corruption and education: Does public financing of higher education matter?," Annual Conference 2015 (Muenster): Economic Development - Theory and Policy 112836, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Areendam Chanda & Carl-Johan Dalgaard, 2008. "Dual Economies and International Total Factor Productivity Differences: Channelling the Impact from Institutions, Trade, and Geography," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 75(300), pages 629-661, November.
    5. Vasilaky, Kathryn, 2011. "The effects of school quality on fertility in a transition economy," MPRA Paper 38965, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Fredrik Carlsen & Stefan Leknes, 2015. "For whom are cities good places to live?," Working Paper Series 16215, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    7. Jimenez-Ayora, Pablo & Ulubaşoğlu, Mehmet Ali, 2015. "What underlies weak states? The role of terrain ruggedness," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 167-183.

    More about this item


    Rural and Urban Schooling; Regional disparities in schooling; General-to-specific modelling; Specific-to-general modelling;

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)


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