IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/trapol/v64y2018icp102-112.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Urban form, demographic and socio-economic correlates of walking, cycling, and e-biking: Evidence from eight neighborhoods in Beijing

Author

Listed:
  • Zhao, Chunli
  • Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
  • Olafsson, Anton Stahl
  • Carstensen, Trine Agervig
  • Meng, Xiaoying

Abstract

This paper explores the urban form, demographic and socio-economic dependencies of walking, cycling and e-biking in Beijing based on a survey (N = 1427) of daily travel among residents in eight neighborhoods, enriched with urban form variables. The results show that walking is most frequently used, followed by cycling, which in turn is more frequent than e-biking. Walking and cycling are preferred when the accessibility of public facilities and services is good, while e-bikes are used when public transport provision is low. Urban form variables of population density, job employment density, and public facilities and services confirmed the experience from western countries that higher density mixed land use increases walking, cycling and e-biking. It is recommended that future sustainable transport policy addresses the maintenance of proximity environments at the neighborhood level. Furthermore, if the contribution of walking and cycling to sustainable urban mobility is to be maintained and repositioned, the younger generation requires substantial encouragement to get them to cycle more, while low education, low and middle income earners, non-hukou citizens are groups that should be encouraged to keep on walking, cycling and e-biking even if their income situation may improve in the future.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhao, Chunli & Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick & Olafsson, Anton Stahl & Carstensen, Trine Agervig & Meng, Xiaoying, 2018. "Urban form, demographic and socio-economic correlates of walking, cycling, and e-biking: Evidence from eight neighborhoods in Beijing," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 102-112.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:64:y:2018:i:c:p:102-112
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.01.018
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967070X17300392
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.tranpol.2018.01.018?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Feng, Jianxi & Dijst, Martin & Wissink, Bart & Prillwitz, Jan, 2017. "Changing travel behaviour in urban China: Evidence from Nanjing 2008–2011," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 1-10.
    2. Kevin J Krizek & Susan L Handy & Ann Forsyth, 2009. "Explaining Changes in Walking and Bicycling Behavior: Challenges for Transportation Research," Environment and Planning B, , vol. 36(4), pages 725-740, August.
    3. Jianxi Feng & Martin Dijst & Jan Prillwitz & Bart Wissink, 2013. "Travel Time and Distance in International Perspective: A Comparison between Nanjing (China) and the Randstad (The Netherlands)," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 50(14), pages 2993-3010, November.
    4. Schafer, Andreas, 1998. "The global demand for motorized mobility," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 455-477, August.
    5. Cervero, R. & Duncan, M., 2003. "Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," American Journal of Public Health, American Public Health Association, vol. 93(9), pages 1478-1483.
    6. Crane, Randall & Crepeau, Richard, 1998. "Does Neighborhood Design Influence Travel?: Behavioral Analysis of Travel Diary and GIS Data," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4pj4s7t8, University of California Transportation Center.
    7. Khan, Mobashwir & M. Kockelman, Kara & Xiong, Xiaoxia, 2014. "Models for anticipating non-motorized travel choices, and the role of the built environment," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 117-126.
    8. Cherry, Christopher R. & Weinert, Jonathan X. & Yang, Xinmiao, 2009. "Comparative Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in China," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt16k918sh, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    9. Bergström, A. & Magnusson, R., 2003. "Potential of transferring car trips to bicycle during winter," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 649-666, October.
    10. Jonathan Weinert & Chaktan Ma & Christopher Cherry, 2007. "The transition to electric bikes in China: history and key reasons for rapid growth," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 301-318, May.
    11. Wang, Dongeen & Lin, Tao, 2014. "Residential self-selection, built environment, and travel behavior in the Chinese context," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 7(3), pages 5-14.
    12. Matthew Roorda & Antonio Páez & Catherine Morency & Ruben Mercado & Steven Farber, 2010. "Trip generation of vulnerable populations in three Canadian cities: a spatial ordered probit approach," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 525-548, May.
    13. Tight, Miles & Timms, Paul & Banister, David & Bowmaker, Jemma & Copas, Jonathan & Day, Andy & Drinkwater, David & Givoni, Moshe & Gühnemann, Astrid & Lawler, Mary & Macmillen, James & Miles, Andrew &, 2011. "Visions for a walking and cycling focussed urban transport system," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 1580-1589.
    14. Yi Zhang & Yuan Li & Qixing Liu & Chaoyang Li, 2014. "The Built Environment and Walking Activity of the Elderly: An Empirical Analysis in the Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 6(2), pages 1-17, February.
    15. Boarnet, Marlon & Crane, Randall, 2001. "The influence of land use on travel behavior: specification and estimation strategies," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 823-845, November.
    16. Cherry, Christopher & Cervero, Robert, 2007. "Use characteristics and mode choice behavior of electric bike users in China," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 247-257, May.
    17. Schafer, Andreas & Victor, David G., 2000. "The future mobility of the world population," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 171-205, April.
    18. Frank, Lawrence Douglas & Saelens, Brian E. & Powell, Ken E. & Chapman, James E., 2007. "Stepping towards causation: Do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(9), pages 1898-1914, November.
    19. Susan Handy & Bert van Wee & Maarten Kroesen, 2014. "Promoting Cycling for Transport: Research Needs and Challenges," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(1), pages 4-24, January.
    20. Cervero, Robert & Duncan, Michael, 2003. "Walking, Bicycling, and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt6zr1x95m, University of California Transportation Center.
    21. Nostikasari, Dian, 2015. "Representations of everyday travel experiences: Case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 96-107.
    22. Weinert, Jonathan X. & Ma, Chaktan & Yang, Xinmiao, 2006. "The Transition to Electric Bikes in China and its Effect on Travel Behavior, Transit Use, and Safety," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt38b3q3jg, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    23. Xinyu Cao & Susan Handy & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2006. "The Influences of the Built Environment and Residential Self-Selection on Pedestrian Behavior: Evidence from Austin, TX," Transportation, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 1-20, January.
    24. Xinyu Cao & Patricia Mokhtarian & Susan Handy, 2007. "Do changes in neighborhood characteristics lead to changes in travel behavior? A structural equations modeling approach," Transportation, Springer, vol. 34(5), pages 535-556, September.
    25. Pengjun Zhao, 2014. "The Impact of the Built Environment on Bicycle Commuting: Evidence from Beijing," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 51(5), pages 1019-1037, April.
    26. Geoffrey Rose, 2012. "E-bikes and urban transportation: emerging issues and unresolved questions," Transportation, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 81-96, January.
    27. Olafsson, Anton Stahl & Nielsen, Thomas Sick & Carstensen, Trine Agervig, 2016. "Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours: Exploring modality styles in the Danish population," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 123-130.
    28. Gössling, Stefan & Choi, Andy S., 2015. "Transport transitions in Copenhagen: Comparing the cost of cars and bicycles," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 106-113.
    29. Van Ommeren, Jos & Rietveld, Piet, 2005. "The commuting time paradox," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 437-454, November.
    30. Cervero, Robert & Radisch, Carolyn, 1996. "Travel choices in pedestrian versus automobile oriented neighborhoods," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 127-141, July.
    31. Aditjandra, Paulus Teguh & Mulley, Corinne & Nelson, John D., 2013. "The influence of neighbourhood design on travel behaviour: Empirical evidence from North East England," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 54-65.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Leonardo Caggiani & Rosalia Camporeale & Zahra Hamidi & Chunli Zhao, 2021. "Evaluating the Efficiency of Bike-Sharing Stations with Data Envelopment Analysis," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(2), pages 1-21, January.
    2. Zacharias, John & Meng, Si'an, 2021. "Environmental correlates of dock-less shared bicycle trip origins and destinations," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).
    3. Jain, Deepty & Tiwari, Geetam, 2019. "Measuring density and diversity to model travel behavior in Indian context," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    4. Bautista-Hernández, Dorian Antonio, 2021. "Mode choice in commuting and the built environment in México City. Is there a chance for non-motorized travel?," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Cao, Xinyu (Jason) & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L., 2009. "The relationship between the built environment and nonwork travel: A case study of Northern California," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 548-559, June.
    2. Li, Jingjing & Auchincloss, Amy H. & Yang, Yong & Rodriguez, Daniel A. & Sánchez, Brisa N., 2020. "Neighborhood characteristics and transport walking: Exploring multiple pathways of influence using a structural equation modeling approach," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 85(C).
    3. Rodriguez-Valencia, Alvaro & Rosas-Satizábal, Daniel & Gordo, Daniel & Ochoa, Andrés, 2019. "Impact of household proximity to the cycling network on bicycle ridership: The case of Bogotá," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 1-1.
    4. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L., 2007. "Residential and Travel Choices of Elderly Residents of Northern California," 48th Annual Transportation Research Forum, Boston, Massachusetts, March 15-17, 2007 207925, Transportation Research Forum.
    5. Cui, Yuchen & Mishra, Sabyasachee & Welch, Timothy F., 2014. "Land use effects on bicycle ridership: a framework for state planning agencies," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 220-228.
    6. Verma, Meghna & Rahul, T.M. & Vinayak, Pragun & Verma, Ashish, 2018. "Influence of childhood and adulthood attitudinal perceptions on bicycle usage in the Bangalore city," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 94-105.
    7. Cao, Xinyu (Jason) & Xu, Zhiyi & Fan, Yingling, 2010. "Exploring the connections among residential location, self-selection, and driving: Propensity score matching with multiple treatments," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 797-805, December.
    8. Elliot Fishman & Christopher Cherry, 2016. "E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 72-91, January.
    9. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Cao, Xinyu, 2008. "Examining the impacts of residential self-selection on travel behavior: A focus on methodologies," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 204-228, March.
    10. Lee, Yongsung & Guhathakurta, Subhrajit, 2018. "An analysis of the effects of suburban densification on vehicle use for shopping: Do existing residents respond to land-use changes in the same way as recent movers?," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 193-204.
    11. Iwińska, Katarzyna & Blicharska, Malgorzata & Pierotti, Livia & Tainio, Marko & de Nazelle, Audrey, 2018. "Cycling in Warsaw, Poland – Perceived enablers and barriers according to cyclists and non-cyclists," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 291-301.
    12. Zhao, Pengjun & Li, Shengxiao, 2017. "Bicycle-metro integration in a growing city: The determinants of cycling as a transfer mode in metro station areas in Beijing," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 46-60.
    13. Lin, Xiao & Wells, Peter & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2018. "The death of a transport regime? The future of electric bicycles and transportation pathways for sustainable mobility in China," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 255-267.
    14. Jina Mahmoudi & Lei Zhang, 2020. "Impact of the Built Environment Measured at Multiple Levels on Nonmotorized Travel Behavior: An Ecological Approach to a Florida Case Study," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(21), pages 1-39, October.
    15. Esther Salmeron-Manzano & Francisco Manzano-Agugliaro, 2018. "The Electric Bicycle: Worldwide Research Trends," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-16, July.
    16. Thomas, Alainna, 2016. "A More Sustainable Minivan? An Exploratory Study of Electric Bicycle Use by San Francisco Bay Area Families," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt6g79m3xx, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    17. Xinyu Cao & Patricia L. Mokhtarian, 2012. "The connections among accessibility, self- selection and walking behaviour: a case study of Northern California residents," Chapters, in: Karst T. Geurs & Kevin J. Krizek & Aura Reggiani (ed.), Accessibility Analysis and Transport Planning, chapter 5, pages 73-95, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Cao, Xinyu, 2006. "The Causal Relationship between the Built Environment and Personal Travel Choice: Evidence from Northern California," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt07q5p340, University of California Transportation Center.
    19. Wells, Peter & Lin, Xiao, 2015. "Spontaneous emergence versus technology management in sustainable mobility transitions: Electric bicycles in China," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 371-383.
    20. Cao, XinYu, 2007. "The Causal Relationship between the Built Environment and Personal Travel Choice: Evidence from Northern California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt1n90z8h8, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:64:y:2018:i:c:p:102-112. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.