IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/trapol/v14y2007i6p507-513.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The impact of the UK aviation tax on carbon dioxide emissions and visitor numbers

Author

Listed:
  • Mayor, Karen
  • Tol, Richard S.J.

Abstract

We use a model of domestic and international tourist numbers and flows to estimate the impact of the recent and proposed changes in the Air Passenger Duty (APD) of the United Kingdom. We look at four different scenarios (abolishing the APD, keeping the 2001 APD level, the 2007 APD and the Conservative Party's "Green Miles" proposal) using base, high and very high elasticity levels as well as assumptions about the substitutability between domestic and international holidays and the effects of a carbon tax. We find that the recent doubling of the APD has the perverse effect of increasing carbon dioxide emissions, albeit only slightly, because it reduces the relative price difference between near and far holidays. Tourists arriving into the UK would fall slightly. The number of tourists travelling from the UK would fall in the countries near to the UK, and this drop would be only partly offset by displaced tourists from the UK. Tourists leaving the UK for countries further a field would increase. The proposal of the Conservative Party to exempt the first 2000Â miles (for UK residents) would decrease emissions by roughly the same amount as abolishing the APD altogether--but the number of tourists arriving into the UK would not rise. These results are reversed if we assume that domestic holidays and foreign holidays are close substitutes. If the same revenue were raised with a carbon tax rather than a boarding tax, emissions would fall rather than rise.

Suggested Citation

  • Mayor, Karen & Tol, Richard S.J., 2007. "The impact of the UK aviation tax on carbon dioxide emissions and visitor numbers," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 507-513, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:14:y:2007:i:6:p:507-513
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967-070X(07)00056-X
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin L. Weitzman, 1974. "Prices vs. Quantities," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 41(4), pages 477-491.
    2. Tol, Richard S. J., 2005. "The marginal damage costs of carbon dioxide emissions: an assessment of the uncertainties," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(16), pages 2064-2074, November.
    3. Jacqueline M. Hamilton & David J. Maddison & Richard S.J. Tol, 2003. "Climate Change And International Tourism: A Simulation Study," Working Papers FNU-31, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Sep 2003.
    4. Bows, Alice & Anderson, Kevin L., 2007. "Policy clash: Can projected aviation growth be reconciled with the UK Government's 60% carbon-reduction target?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 103-110, March.
    5. Witt, Stephen F. & Witt, Christine A., 1995. "Forecasting tourism demand: A review of empirical research," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 447-475, September.
    6. Brons, Martijn & Pels, Eric & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 2002. "Price elasticities of demand for passenger air travel: a meta-analysis," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 165-175.
    7. Wohlgemuth, Norbert, 1997. "World transport energy demand modelling : Methodology and elasticities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 25(14-15), pages 1109-1119, December.
    8. Richard S.J. Tol, 2006. "The Impact Of A Carbon Tax On International Tourism," Working Papers FNU-120, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Nov 2006.
    9. Pizer, William A., 1999. "The optimal choice of climate change policy in the presence of uncertainty," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3-4), pages 255-287, August.
    10. Tae H. Oum & Waters, W.G. & Jong Say Yong, 1990. "A survey of recent estimates of price elasticities of demand for transport," Policy Research Working Paper Series 359, The World Bank.
    11. Dieter Helm, 2005. "Economic Instruments and Environmental Policy," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 36(3), pages 205-228.
    12. Richard S. J. Tol & Gary W. Yohe, 2006. "A Review of the Stern Review," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 7(4), pages 233-250, October.
    13. Andrea Bigano & Jacqueline M. Hamilton & Richard S.J. Tol, 2005. "The Impact Of Climate Change On Domestic And International Tourism: A Simulation Study," Working Papers FNU-58, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Jan 2005.
    14. Jacqueline M. Hamilton & David J. Maddison & Richard S.J. Tol, 2004. "The Effects Of Climate Change On International Tourism," Working Papers FNU-36, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Jan 2004.
    15. Pearce, David, 2006. "The political economy of an energy tax: The United Kingdom's Climate Change Levy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 149-158, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Anger, Annela & Köhler, Jonathan, 2010. "Including aviation emissions in the EU ETS: Much ado about nothing? A review," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 38-46, January.
    2. Morgenroth, Edgar & Murphy, Martin & Moore, Kyle, 2018. "The environmental impacts of fiscal instruments," Research Series, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), number BKMNEXT351.
    3. Anger, Annela, 2010. "Including aviation in the European emissions trading scheme: Impacts on the industry, CO2 emissions and macroeconomic activity in the EU," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 100-105.
    4. Estelle Malavolti & Marion Podesta, 2011. "Inclusion of the aviation sector into the emission trading scheme : an economic analysis," Post-Print hal-01022239, HAL.
    5. Jaume Rosselló Nadal, 2009. "The impact of the NAO index on European Airline Transit," CRE Working Papers (Documents de treball del CRE) 2009/5, Centre de Recerca Econòmica (UIB ·"Sa Nostra").
    6. Tsai, Wen-Hsien & Chang, Yao-Chung & Lin, Sin-Jin & Chen, Hui-Chiao & Chu, Po-Yuan, 2014. "A green approach to the weight reduction of aircraft cabins," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 65-77.
    7. Karen Mayor & Richard S.J. Tol, 2007. "The Impact of the EU-US Open Skies Agreement on International Travel and Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Papers WP191, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    8. Borbely, Daniel, 2019. "A case study on Germany’s aviation tax using the synthetic control approach," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 126(C), pages 377-395.
    9. Seetaram, Neelu & Song, Haiyan & Ye, Shun & Page, Stephen, 2018. "Estimating willingness to pay air passenger duty," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 85-97.
    10. Jiali Zheng & Han Qiao & Shouyang Wang, 2017. "The Effect of Carbon Tax in Aviation Industry on the Multilateral Simulation Game," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(7), pages 1-24, July.
    11. Álvarez-Albelo, Carmen D. & Hernández-Martín, Raúl & Padrón-Fumero, Noemi, 2017. "Air passenger duties as strategic tourism taxation," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 442-453.
    12. Karen Mayor & Richard S. J. Tol, 2008. "Aviation and the Environment in the Context of the EU-US Open Skies Agreement," Papers WP240, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    13. Gössling, Stefan & Scott, Daniel & Hall, C. Michael, 2015. "Inter-market variability in CO2 emission-intensities in tourism: Implications for destination marketing and carbon management," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 203-212.
    14. Markham, Francis & Young, Martin & Reis, Arianne & Higham, James, 2018. "Does carbon pricing reduce air travel? Evidence from the Australian ‘Clean Energy Future’ policy, July 2012 to June 2014," Journal of Transport Geography, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 206-214.
    15. Mayor, Karen & Tol, Richard S.J., 2009. "Aviation and the environment in the context of the EU–US Open Skies agreement," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 90-95.
    16. Galindo, Luis Miguel & Beltrán, Allan & Caballero, Karina, 2018. "Potential consequences of a CO2 aviation tax in Mexico on the demand for tourism," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 90247, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    17. Karen Mayor & Richard S. J. Tol, 2008. "Scenarios of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Aviation," Papers WP244, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    18. Zhang, Jiekuan & Zhang, Yan, 2018. "Carbon tax, tourism CO2 emissions and economic welfare," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 18-30.
    19. Lin, Tzu-Ping, 2010. "Carbon dioxide emissions from transport in Taiwan's national parks," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 285-290.
    20. Paul Peeters & Martin Landré, 2011. "The Emerging Global Tourism Geography—An Environmental Sustainability Perspective," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-30, December.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:14:y:2007:i:6:p:507-513. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30473/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.