Toward an integrated framework of corporate social responsibility, responsiveness, and citizenship in sport
This article examined the concepts of corporate social responsibility, corporate social responsiveness, and corporate citizenship (CSR1, CSR2, and CC, respectively) in relation to the activities reported by organizations in the sport industry. We expand on the idea that social involvement differs amongst sport organizations based on type, scope, direction, and target audiences. Therefore, in contrast to the majority of positivist models of social responsibility, we propose an integrated model of social involvement which notably includes the spatial (i.e., geographical) orientation of social involvement in sport. To begin distinguishing between the various forms of social involvement, we content analyzed the websites of nearly 100 sport entities to provide both typicality and a systematic variety of teams, leagues, and organizations to reveal general social involvement practices in the industry. We conclude that social involvement varies considerably in the sport industry and this variation can be partially explained by geographical reach, stakeholder influences, and business operations of the organizations. For example, multinational organizations are more likely to adopt CC activities than those operating in more localized context and the magnitude and scope of the social involvement tends to reflect the profile and size of the organization.
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Volume (Year): 13 (2010)
Issue (Month): 3 (August)
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