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A literature review of the anchoring effect

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  • Furnham, Adrian
  • Boo, Hua Chu

Abstract

The anchoring effect is one of the most robust cognitive heuristics. This paper reviews the literature in this area including various different models, explanations and underlying mechanisms used to explain anchoring effects. The anchoring effect is both robust and has many implications in all decision making processes. This review paper documents the many different domains and tasks in which the effect has been shown. It also considers mood and individual difference (ability, personality, information styles) correlates of anchoring as well as the effect of motivation and knowledge on decisions affected by anchoring. Finally the review looks at the applicants of the anchoring effects in everyday life.

Suggested Citation

  • Furnham, Adrian & Boo, Hua Chu, 2011. "A literature review of the anchoring effect," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 35-42, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:soceco:v:40:y:2011:i:1:p:35-42
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Oechssler, Jörg & Roider, Andreas & Schmitz, Patrick W., 2009. "Cognitive abilities and behavioral biases," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 147-152, October.
    2. Eroglu, Cuneyt & Croxton, Keely L., 2010. "Biases in judgmental adjustments of statistical forecasts: The role of individual differences," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 116-133, January.
    3. Todd McElroy & Keith Dowd, 2007. "Susceptibility to anchoring effects: How openness-to-experience influences responses to anchoring cues," Judgment and Decision Making, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 2, pages 48-53, February.
    4. Mussweiler, Thomas & Englich, Birte, 2005. "Subliminal anchoring: Judgmental consequences and underlying mechanisms," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 133-143, November.
    5. Shane Frederick, 2005. "Cognitive Reflection and Decision Making," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 25-42, Fall.
    6. Brandstatter, Hermann, 1993. "Should economic psychology care about personality structure?," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 473-494, September.
    7. Mussweiler, Thomas & Strack, Fritz, 2001. "The Semantics of Anchoring," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 234-255, November.
    8. Goldstein, Daniel G. & Gigerenzer, Gerd, 2008. "The Recognition Heuristic and the Less-Is-More Effect," Handbook of Experimental Economics Results, Elsevier.
    9. van Exel, N.J.A. & Brouwer, W.B.F. & van den Berg, B. & Koopmanschap, M.A., 2006. "With a little help from an anchor: Discussion and evidence of anchoring effects in contingent valuation," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 836-853, October.
    10. Chapman, Gretchen B. & Johnson, Eric J., 1999. "Anchoring, Activation, and the Construction of Values, , , , , ," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 115-153, August.
    11. Bergman, Oscar & Ellingsen, Tore & Johannesson, Magnus & Svensson, Cicek, 2010. "Anchoring and cognitive ability," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(1), pages 66-68, April.
    12. Biswas, Abhijit & Wilson, Elizabeth J. & Licata, Jane W., 1993. "Reference pricing studies in marketing: A synthesis of research results," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 239-256, July.
    13. Northcraft, Gregory B. & Neale, Margaret A., 1987. "Experts, amateurs, and real estate: An anchoring-and-adjustment perspective on property pricing decisions," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 84-97, February.
    14. Birte Englich & Kirsten Soder, 2009. "Moody experts --- How mood and expertise influence judgmental anchoring," Judgment and Decision Making, Society for Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 4(1), pages 41-50, February.
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