Long memory options: LM evidence and simulations
This paper demonstrates the impact of the observed financial market persistence or long term memory on European option valuation by simple simulation. Many empirical researchers have observed the non-Fickian degrees of persistence or long memory in the financial markets different from the Fickian neutral independence (i.i.d.) of the returns innovations assumption of Black-Scholes' geometric Brownian motion assumption. Moreover, Elliott and van der Hoek (2003) provide a theoretical framework for incorporating these findings into the Black- Scholes risk-neutral valuation framework. This paper provides the first graphical demonstration why and how such long term memory phenomena change European option values and provides thereby a basis for informed long term memory arbitrage. By using a simple mono-fractal Fractional Brownian motion, it is easy to incorporate the various degrees of persistence into the Black-Scholes pricing formula. Long memory options are of considerable importance in corporate remuneration packages, since stock options are written on a company's own shares for long expiration periods. It makes a significant difference in the valuation when an option is 'blue' or when it is 'red.' For a proper valuation of such stock options, the degrees of persistence of the companies' share markets must be precisely measured and properly incorporated in the warrant valuation, otherwise substantial pricing errors may result.
(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Morana, Claudio & Beltratti, Andrea, 2004. "Structural change and long-range dependence in volatility of exchange rates: either, neither or both?," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(5), pages 629-658, December.
- Aleksander Janicki & Aleksander Weron, 1994. "Simulation and Chaotic Behavior of Alpha-stable Stochastic Processes," HSC Books, Hugo Steinhaus Center, Wroclaw University of Technology, number hsbook9401.
- Opong, Kwaku K. & Mulholland, Gwyneth & Fox, Alan F. & Farahmand, Kambiz, 1999. "The behaviour of some UK equity indices: An application of Hurst and BDS tests1," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 267-282, September.
- Hauser, Michael A & Kunst, Robert M, 1998. "Fractionally Integrated Models with ARCH Errors: With an Application to the Swiss One-Month Euromarket Interest Rate," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 95-113, January.
- Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher, 2002.
"Multifractality In Asset Returns: Theory And Evidence,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 84(3), pages 381-406, August.
- Laurent-Emmanuel Calvet & Adlai J. Fisher, 2002. "Multifractality in Asset Returns: Theory and Evidence," Post-Print hal-00478175, HAL.
- Mulligan, Robert F. & Lombardo, Gary A., 2004. "Maritime businesses: volatile stock prices and market valuation inefficiencies," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 321-336, May.
- Kyaw, NyoNyo A. & Los, Cornelis A. & Zong, Sijing, 2006. "Persistence characteristics of Latin American financial markets," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 269-290, July.
- Sijing Zong & Cornelis A. Los & Nyonyo Kyaw, 2004. "Persistence Characteristics of Latin American Financial Markets," Finance 0411013, EconWPA.
- Nyo Nyo A. Kyaw & Cornelis A. Los & Sijing Zong, 2004. "Persistence Characteristics of Latin American Financial Markets," Finance 0409048, EconWPA.
- Lo, Andrew W, 1991. "Long-Term Memory in Stock Market Prices," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(5), pages 1279-1313, September.
- Lo, Andrew W. (Andrew Wen-Chuan), 1989. "Long-term memory in stock market prices," Working papers 3014-89., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Andrew W. Lo, 1989. "Long-term Memory in Stock Market Prices," NBER Working Papers 2984, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RSSTATISTIC: RATS procedure to compute R/S Statistic (classical or Lo's modified)," Statistical Software Components RTS00191, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Matteo, T. Di & Aste, T. & Dacorogna, Michel M., 2005. "Long-term memories of developed and emerging markets: Using the scaling analysis to characterize their stage of development," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 827-851, April.
- T. Di Matteo & T. Aste & M. M. Dacorogna, 2004. "Long term memories of developed and emerging markets: using the scaling analysis to characterize their stage of development," Papers cond-mat/0403681, arXiv.org.
- T. Di Matteo & T. Aste & Michel M. Dacorogna, 2005. "Long-term memories of developed and emerging markets: Using the scaling analysis to characterize their stage of development," Econometrics 0503004, EconWPA.
- Lillo Fabrizio & Farmer J. Doyne, 2004. "The Long Memory of the Efficient Market," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(3), pages 1-35, September.
- Fabrizio Lillo & J. Doyne Farmer, 2003. "The long memory of the efficient market," Papers cond-mat/0311053, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2004.
- Gil-Alana, Luis A., 2004. "Modelling the U.S. interest rate in terms of I(d) statistical models," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 475-486, September.
- Lee, Cheng F & Chen, Gong-meng & Rui, Oliver M, 2001. "Stock Returns and Volatility on China's Stock Markets," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 24(4), pages 523-543, Winter.
- Cheng F. Lee & Gong-meng Chen & Oliver M. Rui, 2001. "Stock Returns And Volatility On China'S Stock Markets," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 24(4), pages 523-543, December.
- Harvey, Campbell R & Whaley, Robert E, 1991. " S&P 100 Index Option Volatility," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1251-1261, September.
- Marco Corazza & A. G. Malliaris, 2005. "Multi-Fractality in Foreign Currency Markets," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Economic Uncertainty, Instabilities And Asset Bubbles Selected Essays, chapter 11, pages 151-184 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Marco Corazza & A. G. Malliaris, 2002. "Multi-Fractality in Foreign Currency Markets," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 6(2), pages 65-98, June.
- Gençay, Ramazan & Gençay, Ramazan & Selçuk, Faruk & Whitcher, Brandon J., 2001. "An Introduction to Wavelets and Other Filtering Methods in Finance and Economics," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 1, number 9780122796708.
- Karuppiah, Jeyanthi & Los, Cornelis A., 2005. "Wavelet multiresolution analysis of high-frequency Asian FX rates, Summer 1997," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 211-246.
- Cornelis A. Los & Jeyanthi Karuppiah, 2004. "Wavelet Multiresolution Analysis of High-Frequency Asian FX Rates, Summer 1997," Finance 0409037, EconWPA.
- L. C. G. Rogers, 1997. "Arbitrage with Fractional Brownian Motion," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 95-105.
- Grau-Carles, Pilar, 2000. "Empirical evidence of long-range correlations in stock returns," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 396-404.
- Xu, Xinzhong & Taylor, Stephen J., 1994. "The Term Structure of Volatility Implied by Foreign Exchange Options," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 29(01), pages 57-74, March.
- Batten, Jonathan & Ellis, Craig & Hogan, Warren, 2002. "Scaling the volatility of credit spreads: Evidence from Australian dollar eurobonds," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 331-344.
- Rama Cont & Marc Potters & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, 1997. "Scaling in stock market data: stable laws and beyond," Science & Finance (CFM) working paper archive 9705087, Science & Finance, Capital Fund Management.
- Rama Cont & Marc Potters & Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, 1997. "Scaling in stock market data: stable laws and beyond," Papers cond-mat/9705087, arXiv.org.
- Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S., 2001. "Long memory and nonlinear mean reversion in Japanese yen-based real exchange rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 115-132, February.
- Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
- Bernard Dumas & Jeff Fleming & Robert E. Whaley, 1998. "Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(6), pages 2059-2106, December.
- Benoit Mandelbrot & Adlai Fisher & Laurent Calvet, 1997. "A Multifractal Model of Asset Returns," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1164, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Laurent Calvet & Adlai Fisher & Benoit Mandelbrot, 1999. "A Multifractal Model of Assets Returns," New York University, Leonard N. Stern School Finance Department Working Paper Seires 99-072, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business-.
- Laurent-Emmanuel Calvet & Benoît B. Mandelbrot & Adlai J. Fisher, 2011. "A Multifractal Model of Asset Returns," Working Papers hal-00601870, HAL.
- Muller, Ulrich A. & Dacorogna, Michel M. & Olsen, Richard B. & Pictet, Olivier V. & Schwarz, Matthias & Morgenegg, Claude, 1990. "Statistical study of foreign exchange rates, empirical evidence of a price change scaling law, and intraday analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 1189-1208, December.
- Fama, Eugene F, 1970. "Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 383-417, May.
- Cheung, Yin-Wong & Lai, Kon S., 1995. "A search for long memory in international stock market returns," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 597-615, August.
- Mulligan, Robert F., 2004. "Fractal analysis of highly volatile markets: an application to technology equities," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 155-179, February.
- Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Martin Meyer & Luis A Nunes Amaral & H Eugene Stanley, 1998. "Inverse Cubic Law for the Probability Distribution of Stock Price Variations," Papers cond-mat/9803374, arXiv.org, revised May 1998.
- Jacobsen, Ben, 1996. "Long term dependence in stock returns," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 393-417, December.
- Henry, Olan T. & Olekalns, Nilss, 2002. "Does the Australian dollar real exchange rate display mean reversion," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 651-666, October.
- Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
- Barkoulas, John T. & Baum, Christopher F., 1998. "Fractional dynamics in Japanese financial time series," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 6(1-2), pages 115-124, May.
- John Barkoulas & Christopher F. Baum, 1996. "Fractional Dynamics in Japanese Financial Time Series," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 334., Boston College Department of Economics.
- Pierre Cizeau & Yanhui Liu & Martin Meyer & C. -K. Peng & H. Eugene Stanley, 1997. "Volatility distribution in the S&P500 Stock Index," Papers cond-mat/9708143, arXiv.org.
- Batten, Jonathan & Ellis, Craig & Mellor, Robert, 1999. "Scaling laws in variance as a measure of long-term dependence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 123-138, June.
- Sowell, Fallaw, 1990. "The Fractional Unit Root Distribution," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(2), pages 495-505, March.
- P. Gopikrishnan & M. Meyer & L.A.N. Amaral & H.E. Stanley, 1998. "Inverse cubic law for the distribution of stock price variations," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 3(2), pages 139-140, July. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)