Determinants of target selection and acquirer returns: Evidence from cross-border acquisitions
We examine cross-border acquisitions of private and public targets by U.S. firms by employing self selection models. We are particularly interested in the roles of country-level liquidity and transparency in cross-border acquisitions. Our results show that a typical acquisition deal of a private target is smaller in size, uses cash less frequently for payment, and involves more high-tech firms than that of a public target. Most importantly, we find that acquiring firms are more likely to buy private targets in lower-transparency countries, but the level of market liquidity in the target firm countries has little effect on the target selection. Furthermore, after accounting for the endogeneity bias associated with target selection, country liquidity is no longer a key determinant of acquirer returns in cross-border acquisitions. Our results are robust to alternative specifications of dependent variable and self selection models.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Richard Makadok & Jay B. Barney, 2001. "Strategic Factor Market Intelligence: An Application of Information Economics to Strategy Formulation and Competitor Intelligence," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(12), pages 1621-1638, December.
- Marcelo Bianconi & Liang Tan, 2009.
"Cross-listing Premium in the US and the UK Destination,"
Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University
0737, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Bianconi, Marcelo & Tan, Liang, 2010. "Cross-listing premium in the US and the UK destination," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 244-259, April.
- Saeyoung Chang, 1998. "Takeovers of Privately Held Targets, Methods of Payment, and Bidder Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 773-784, 04.
- John H Dunning, 1980. "Towards an Eclectic Theory of International Production: Some Empirical Tests," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 9-31, March.
- Cooney, John W. & Moeller, Thomas & Stegemoller, Mike, 2009. "The underpricing of private targets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 51-66, July.
- Heckman, James J, 1979.
"Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error,"
Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
- repec:oup:restud:v:74:y:2007:i:4:p:1229-1257 is not listed on IDEAS
- Wintoki, M. Babajide & Linck, James S. & Netter, Jeffry M., 2012. "Endogeneity and the dynamics of internal corporate governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(3), pages 581-606.
- J. Myles Shaver, 1998. "Accounting for Endogeneity When Assessing Strategy Performance: Does Entry Mode Choice Affect FDI Survival?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 571-585, April.
- J. Peter Neary, 2003. "Presidential Address: Globalization and Market Structure," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(2-3), pages 245-271, 04/05.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2005.
"Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches,"
NBER Working Papers
11280, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
- Officer, Micah S., 2007. "The price of corporate liquidity: Acquisition discounts for unlisted targets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 571-598, March.
- Lang, Larry & Poulsen, Annette & Stulz, Rene, 1995.
"Asset sales, firm performance, and the agency costs of managerial discretion,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 3-37, January.
- Larry Lang & Annette Poulsen & Rene M. Stulz, 1994. "Asset Sales, Firm Performance, and the Agency Costs of Managerial Discretion," NBER Working Papers 4654, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2002. "Do Conglomerate Firms Allocate Resources Inefficiently Across Industries? Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 721-767, 04.
- J. Peter Neary, 2004.
"Cross-border mergers as instruments of comparative advantage,"
200404, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Neary, J. Peter, 2004. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 34, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
- Neary, J Peter, 2004. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," CEPR Discussion Papers 4325, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M. & Walkling, Ralph A., 2002. "Divestitures and the liquidity of the market for corporate assets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 117-144, April.
- Faccio, Mara & McConnell, John J. & Stolin, David, 2006. "Returns to Acquirers of Listed and Unlisted Targets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(01), pages 197-220, March.
- Jung-Chin Shen & Jeffrey Reuer, 2005. "Adverse Selection in Acquisitions of Small Manufacturing Firms: A Comparison of Private and Public Targets," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 393-407, 05.
- Lee, Gemma & Masulis, Ronald W., 2009. "Seasoned equity offerings: Quality of accounting information and expected flotation costs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3), pages 443-469, June.
- Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
- José Manuel Campa & Simi Kedia, 1999.
"Explaining the Diversification Discount,"
99-06, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
- John Koeplin & Atulya Sarin & Alan C. Shapiro, 2000. "The Private Company Discount," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 12(4), pages 94-101.
- Reuer, Jeffrey J. & Ragozzino, Roberto, 2008. "Adverse selection and M&A design: The roles of alliances and IPOs," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 195-212, May.
- Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan, 1986. "Valuation effects of security offerings and the issuance process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1-2), pages 31-60.
- Steven Brakman & Harry Garretsen & Charles Van Marrewijk & Arjen Van Witteloostuijn, 2013. "Cross-Border Merger & Acquisition Activity and Revealed Comparative Advantage in Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 28-57, 03.
- Dutta, Shantanu & Saadi, Samir & Zhu, PengCheng, 2013. "Does payment method matter in cross-border acquisitions?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 91-107.
- George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
- Kathleen Fuller & Jeffry Netter & Mike Stegemoller, 2002. "What Do Returns to Acquiring Firms Tell Us? Evidence from Firms That Make Many Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1763-1793, 08.
- Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Firm size and the gains from acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 201-228, August.
- Mulherin, J. Harold & Boone, Audra L., 2000. "Comparing acquisitions and divestitures," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 117-139, July.
- Robert E. Lipsey & Zadia Feliciano, 2002. "Foreign Entry into U.S. Manufacturing by Takeovers and the Creation of New Firms," NBER Working Papers 9122, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Micah S. Officer & Annette B. Poulsen & Mike Stegemoller, 2009. "Target-firm information asymmetry and acquirer�returns," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 13(3), pages 467-493.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:reveco:v:27:y:2013:i:c:p:552-565. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.