University–industry collaboration and innovation in emergent and mature industries in new industrialized countries
As the economies and indigenous technological capabilities of the new industrialized countries improve, national universities and public research organizations are expected to become increasingly important for supporting indigenous firms to move into more dynamic and high-opportunity industries. However, the characteristics of collaboration with universities may be very specific depending on whether the industry partner is engaged in mature or emergent activities. In this study, we explore and discuss the role of university–industry collaboration for the development of innovation in mature and emergent industries in new industrialized countries. Evidence from 24 research groups in science and engineering departments in universities and public research organizations in Brazil provides preliminary empirical corroboration for the proposal that the contexts and role of university–industry collaboration in mature and emergent industries are diverse. Knowledge networks are underdeveloped in emerging industries, and public support for research projects is dispersed. This means that university research and development projects with firms in emergent industries are less likely than projects with firms in mature industries to be the result of academic initiatives and public calls for research projects, or to be wholly financed by major public research sponsors. In emergent industries, the role of students and firm employees is crucial for mediating between public research organizations and companies. The policy implications of these preliminary findings are discussed.
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