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Explaining divergence in catching-up in pharma between India and Brazil using the NSI framework

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  • Guennif, Samira
  • Ramani, Shyama V.

Abstract

Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, a large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over sixty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories.

Suggested Citation

  • Guennif, Samira & Ramani, Shyama V., 2012. "Explaining divergence in catching-up in pharma between India and Brazil using the NSI framework," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 430-441.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:41:y:2012:i:2:p:430-441
    DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2011.09.005
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Landini, Fabio & Lee, Keun & Malerba, Franco, 2017. "A history-friendly model of the successive changes in industrial leadership and the catch-up by latecomers," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 431-446.
    2. Schüren Verena, 2013. "What a difference a state makes: pharmaceutical innovation after the TRIPs agreement," Business and Politics, De Gruyter, vol. 15(2), pages 217-243, August.
    3. Loitongbam, Bishwanjit Singh, 2016. "Impact of TRIPS and RTAs on the Indian Pharmaceutical Product Exports," MPRA Paper 75764, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 May 2016.
    4. Loitongbam, Bishwanjit Singh, 2016. "Globalization and Innovation in the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry," MPRA Paper 75925, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 May 2016.
    5. Keun Lee & Tae Young Park & Rishikesha T. Krishnan, 2014. "Catching-up or Leapfrogging in the Indian IT Service Sector: Windows of Opportunity, Path-creating, and Moving up the Value Chain," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 32(4), pages 495-518, July.
    6. Anil Nair & Orhun Guldiken & Stav Fainshmidt & Amir Pezeshkan, 2015. "Innovation in India: A review of past research and future directions," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 925-958, December.
    7. Chung, Chao-chen, 2013. "Government, policy-making and the development of innovation system: The cases of Taiwanese pharmaceutical biotechnology policies (2000–2008)," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(5), pages 1053-1071.
    8. Khayyat, Nabaz T. & Lee, Jeong-Dong, 2015. "A measure of technological capabilities for developing countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 210-223.

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