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Catching up in pharmaceuticals: a comparative study of India and Brazil

Author

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  • Samira Guennif

    () (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord (ancienne affiliation) - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

  • Shyama Ramani

    (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - X - École polytechnique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique)

Abstract

Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset, they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists and engineers. However, over fifty years, India has had much more success in building indigenous capabilities in pharmaceuticals than Brazil, at least to date. Why? In exploring the answer to this question, we show that in both countries the design of State policy played a crucial role and the endogenous responses in the national system of innovation consisted of two parts. On the one hand, most of the time, the predicted and desired outcome was partially realized and on the other hand, there were invariably, other unpredicted responses that emerged. The latter unexpected elements, which were specific to the two countries, pushed them along distinctive trajectories.

Suggested Citation

  • Samira Guennif & Shyama Ramani, 2010. "Catching up in pharmaceuticals: a comparative study of India and Brazil," CEPN Working Papers hal-00632439, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:cepnwp:hal-00632439
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00632439
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Malerba, Franco, 2002. "Sectoral systems of innovation and production," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 247-264, February.
    2. Zon, Adriaan van & Mupela, Evans, 2010. "Endogenous Economic Growth through Connectivity," MERIT Working Papers 001, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    3. Suma Athreye & Dinar Kale & Shyama V. Ramani, 2009. "Experimentation with strategy and the evolution of dynamic capability in the Indian pharmaceutical sector," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 729-759, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Daems, Rutger & Maes, Edith & Ramani, Shyama V., 2011. "Global Framework for Differential Pricing of Pharmaceuticals," MERIT Working Papers 054, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    2. Varma, Sumati & Nayyar, Rishika, 2014. "OFDI between India and the LAC Region : A firm level motive analysis," MPRA Paper 56219, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pharmaceutical industry; India; Brazil; industrial capabilities; Catch-up;

    JEL classification:

    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O38 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Government Policy
    • O57 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Comparative Studies of Countries

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