The elixir (or burden) of youth? Exploring differences in innovation between start-ups and established firms
Despite the widely acknowledged role of start-ups in economic development, little is known about their innovative activities compared with those of established firms. Drawing on a sample of 12,209 UK firms, we differentiate between services and manufacturing firms and, using a matching estimator approach, demonstrate that start-ups differ significantly from established firms in their innovation activities. We find that in services, being a start-up increases the likelihood of product innovations. However, in manufacturing, we find no significant differences in the likelihood of product innovation between start-ups and established firms. When examining the returns to innovation, we find that start-ups have a significant advantage both in services and in manufacturing. We explore the implications of these results for theory and policy.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Holmstrom, Bengt, 1989. "Agency costs and innovation," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 305-327, December.
- Bronwyn Hall & Jacques Mairesse, 2006.
"Empirical studies of innovation in the knowledge-driven economy,"
Economics of Innovation and New Technology,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4-5), pages 289-299.
- Hall, Bronwyn & Mairesse, Jacques, 2006. "Empirical studies of innovation in the knowledge driven economy," MERIT Working Papers 028, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
- Bronwyn H. Hall & Jacques Mairesse, 2006. "Empirical Studies of Innovation in the Knowledge Driven Economy," NBER Working Papers 12320, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
- David J. TEECE, 2008. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: The Transfer And Licensing Of Know-How And Intellectual Property Understanding the Multinational Enterprise in the Modern World, chapter 5, pages 67-87 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Teece, David J., 1986. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 285-305, December.
- Teece, David J., 1993. "Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 112-113, April.
- David J. Teece, 2003. "Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Essays In Technology Management And Policy Selected Papers of David J Teece, chapter 2, pages 11-46 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Barras, Richard, 1986. "Towards a theory of innovation in services," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 161-173, August.
- Miller, Danny & Hope, Quentin & Eisenstat, Russell & Foote, Nathaniel & Galbraith, Jay, 2002. "The problem of solutions: Balancing clients and capabilities," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 3-12.
- Gans, Joshua S. & Stern, Scott, 2003. "The product market and the market for "ideas": commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 333-350, February.
- Elena Cefis & Orietta Marsili, 2005. "A matter of life and death: innovation and firm survival," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(6), pages 1167-1192, December.
- Cefis, E. & Marsili, O., 2004. "A Matter of Life and Death: Innovation and Firm Survival," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2004-109-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Elena Cefis & Orietta Marsili, 2005. "A Matter of Life and Death: Innovation and Firm Survival," LEM Papers Series 2005/01, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Sirilli, Giorgio & Evangelista, Rinaldo, 1998. "Technological innovation in services and manufacturing: results from Italian surveys," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(9), pages 881-899, December.
- Faïz Gallouj & Maria Savona, 2009. "Innovation in services: a review of the debate and a research agenda," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 149-172, April.
- Faïz Gallouj, 2009. "Innovation in services: a review of the debate and a research agenda," Post-Print halshs-01113912, HAL.
- Faïz Gallouj & Maria Savona, 2009. "Innovation in services: a review of the debate and a research agenda," Post-Print halshs-01133781, HAL.
- Faïz Gallouj & Maria Savona, 2009. "Innovation in services: A review of the debate and a research agenda," Working Papers hal-01111796, HAL.
- Klevorick, Alvin K. & Levin, Richard C. & Nelson, Richard R. & Winter, Sidney G., 1995. "On the sources and significance of interindustry differences in technological opportunities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 185-205, March.
- Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard C. Levin & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1993. "On the Sources and Significance of Interindustry Differences in Technological Opportunities," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1052, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Megan MacGarvie, 2006. "Do Firms Learn from International Trade?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(1), pages 46-60, February.
- Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1987. "Innovation, Market Structure, and Firm Size," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(4), pages 567-574, November.
- Toke Reichstein & Ammon Salter & David Gann, 2005. "Last among equals: a comparison of innovation in construction, services and manufacturing in the UK," Construction Management and Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(6), pages 631-644.
- Hipp, Christiane & Grupp, Hariolf, 2005. "Innovation in the service sector: The demand for service-specific innovation measurement concepts and typologies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 517-535, May.
- Loof, Hans & Heshmati, Almas, 2002. "Knowledge capital and performance heterogeneity: : A firm-level innovation study," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 61-85, March.
- Lööf, Hans & Heshmati, Almas, 2000. "Knowledge Capital and Performance Heterogeneity: A Firm Level Innovation Study," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 387, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 14 Aug 2000.
- Holmström, Bengt, 1989. "Agency Costs and Innovation," Working Paper Series 214, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Cefis, Elena & Marsili, Orietta, 2006. "Survivor: The role of innovation in firms' survival," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 626-641, June.
- Breschi, Stefano & Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2000. "Technological Regimes and Schumpeterian Patterns of Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(463), pages 388-410, April.
- Jacques Mairesse & Pierre Mohnen, 2002. "Accounting for Innovation and Measuring Innovativeness: An Illustrative Framework and an Application," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(2), pages 226-230, May.
- Kosuke Imai & David A. van Dyk, 2004. "Causal Inference With General Treatment Regimes: Generalizing the Propensity Score," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 99, pages 854-866, January.
- Natarajan Balasubramanian & Jeongsik Lee, 2008. "Firm age and innovation," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(5), pages 1019-1047, October.
- Dirk Czarnitzki, 2005. "The Extent and Evolution of Productivity Deficiency in Eastern Germany," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 211-231, October.
- Emmanuel Duguet & Megan MacGarvie, 2005. "How well do patent citations measure flows of technology? Evidence from French innovation surveys," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(5), pages 375-393.
- DUGUET Emmanuel & MacGARVIE Megan, 2004. "How Well Do Patent Citations Measure Flows of Technology? Evidence from French Innovation Surveys," Development and Comp Systems 0411018, EconWPA.
- Drejer, Ina, 2004. "Identifying innovation in surveys of services: a Schumpeterian perspective," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 551-562, April.
- Bruce Tether, 2005. "Do Services Innovate (Differently)? Insights from the European Innobarometer Survey," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 153-184.
- Amara, Nabil & Landry, Réjean & Traoré, Namatié, 2008. "Managing the protection of innovations in knowledge-intensive business services," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1530-1547, October.
- Ada Leiponen, 2000. "Competencies, Innovation And Profitability Of Firms," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 1-24.
- Bruce Tether, 2003. "The sources and aims of innovation in services: Variety between and within sectors," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(6), pages 481-505.
- Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
- Zoltan J. Acs & David B. Audretsch, 1988. "Testing the Schumpeterian Hypothesis," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 129-140, Apr-Jun.
- Alberto Abadie & Guido W. Imbens, 2006. "Large Sample Properties of Matching Estimators for Average Treatment Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(1), pages 235-267, 01.
- Tether, Bruce S. & Tajar, Abdelouahid, 2008. "Beyond industry-university links: Sourcing knowledge for innovation from consultants, private research organisations and the public science-base," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6-7), pages 1079-1095, July. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)