IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/phsmap/v389y2010i14p2751-2761.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Scaling and memory in the non-Poisson process of limit order cancelation

Author

Listed:
  • Ni, Xiao-Hui
  • Jiang, Zhi-Qiang
  • Gu, Gao-Feng
  • Ren, Fei
  • Chen, Wei
  • Zhou, Wei-Xing

Abstract

The order submission and cancelation processes are two crucial aspects in the price formation of stocks traded in order-driven markets. We investigate the dynamics of order cancelation by studying the statistical properties of inter-cancelation durations, defined as the waiting times between consecutive order cancelations of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange of China in year 2003. Three types of cancelations are considered, including cancelation of any limit orders, of buy limit orders and of sell limit orders. We find that the distributions of the inter-cancelation durations of individual stocks can be well modeled by Weibulls for each type of cancelation, and the distributions of rescaled durations of each type of cancelations exhibit a scaling behavior for different stocks. Complex intra-day patterns are also unveiled in the inter-cancelation durations. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the multifractal DFA show that the inter-cancelation durations possess long-term memory and multifractal nature, which are not influenced by the intra-day patterns. No clear crossover phenomenon is observed in the detrended fluctuation functions with respect to the time scale. These findings indicate that the cancelation of limit orders is a non-Poisson process, which has potential worth in the construction of order-driven market models.

Suggested Citation

  • Ni, Xiao-Hui & Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Gu, Gao-Feng & Ren, Fei & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2010. "Scaling and memory in the non-Poisson process of limit order cancelation," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(14), pages 2751-2761.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:389:y:2010:i:14:p:2751-2761
    DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2010.02.040
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378437110001676
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only. Journal offers the option of making the article available online on Science direct for a fee of $3,000

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.physa.2010.02.040?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gao-Feng Gu & Wei Chen & Wei-Xing Zhou, 2006. "Quantifying bid-ask spreads in the Chinese stock market using limit-order book data: Intraday pattern, probability distribution, long memory, and multifractal nature," Papers physics/0701017, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2007.
    2. Enrico Scalas & Rudolf Gorenflo & Hugh Luckock & Francesco Mainardi & Maurizio Mantelli & Marco Raberto, 2004. "Anomalous waiting times in high-frequency financial data," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(6), pages 695-702.
    3. Ren, Fei & Gu, Gao-Feng & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Scaling and memory in the return intervals of realized volatility," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(22), pages 4787-4796.
    4. Scalas, Enrico, 2006. "The application of continuous-time random walks in finance and economics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 362(2), pages 225-239.
    5. Mike, Szabolcs & Farmer, J. Doyne, 2008. "An empirical behavioral model of liquidity and volatility," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 200-234, January.
    6. Gu, Gao-Feng & Ren, Fei & Ni, Xiao-Hui & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2010. "Empirical regularities of opening call auction in Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(2), pages 278-286.
    7. Ren, Fei & Guo, Liang & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Statistical properties of volatility return intervals of Chinese stocks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(6), pages 881-890.
    8. Plamen Ch. Ivanov & Ainslie Yuen & Boris Podobnik & Youngki Lee, 2004. "Common Scaling Patterns in Intertrade Times of U. S. Stocks," Papers cond-mat/0403662, arXiv.org.
    9. Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Scaling in the distribution of intertrade durations of Chinese stocks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(23), pages 5818-5825.
    10. Eisler, Zoltán & Kertész, János, 2007. "The dynamics of traded value revisited," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(1), pages 66-72.
    11. Z. Eisler & J. Kertész, 2006. "Size matters: some stylized facts of the stock market revisited," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 51(1), pages 145-154, May.
    12. Alfonso Dufour & Robert F. Engle, 2000. "Time and the Price Impact of a Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2467-2498, December.
    13. Biais, Bruno & Hillion, Pierre & Spatt, Chester, 1995. "An Empirical Analysis of the Limit Order Book and the Order Flow in the Paris Bourse," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1655-1689, December.
    14. Kyungsik Kim & Seong-Min Yoon, 2002. "Dynamical Behavior of Continuous Tick Data in Futures Exchange Market," Papers cond-mat/0212393, arXiv.org.
    15. Gu, Gao-Feng & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Empirical regularities of order placement in the Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(13), pages 3173-3182.
    16. Sazuka, Naoya, 2007. "On the gap between an empirical distribution and an exponential distribution of waiting times for price changes in a financial market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 376(C), pages 500-506.
    17. Scalas, Enrico & Gorenflo, Rudolf & Mainardi, Francesco, 2000. "Fractional calculus and continuous-time finance," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 284(1), pages 376-384.
    18. Maslov, Sergei & Mills, Mark, 2001. "Price fluctuations from the order book perspective—empirical facts and a simple model," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 234-246.
    19. I. Vodenska-Chitkushev & F. Z. Wang & P. Weber & K. Yamasaki & S. Havlin & H. E. Stanley, 2008. "Comparison between volatility return intervals of the S&P 500 index and two common models," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 61(2), pages 217-223, January.
    20. Sergei Maslov & Mark Mills, 2001. "Price fluctuations from the order book perspective - empirical facts and a simple model," Papers cond-mat/0102518, arXiv.org.
    21. Politi, Mauro & Scalas, Enrico, 2008. "Fitting the empirical distribution of intertrade durations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(8), pages 2025-2034.
    22. Gu, Gao-Feng & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Empirical distributions of Chinese stock returns at different microscopic timescales," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(2), pages 495-502.
    23. Yoon, Seong-Min & Choi, J.S. & Christopher Lee, C. & Yum, Myung-Kul & Kim, Kyungsik, 2006. "Dynamical volatilities for yen–dollar exchange rates," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 359(C), pages 569-575.
    24. Zoltan Eisler & Janos Kertesz, 2005. "Size matters: some stylized facts of the stock market revisited," Papers physics/0508156, arXiv.org, revised May 2006.
    25. Qiu, T. & Guo, L. & Chen, G., 2008. "Scaling and memory effect in volatility return interval of the Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(27), pages 6812-6818.
    26. Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Detrended fluctuation analysis of intertrade durations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(4), pages 433-440.
    27. Masoliver, Jaume & Montero, Miquel & Perello, Josep & Weiss, George H., 2006. "The continuous time random walk formalism in financial markets," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 61(4), pages 577-598, December.
    28. Qiu, T. & Zhong, L.X. & Chen, G. & Wu, X.R., 2009. "Statistical properties of trading volume of Chinese stocks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(12), pages 2427-2434.
    29. Robert F. Engle, 2000. "The Econometrics of Ultra-High Frequency Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(1), pages 1-22, January.
    30. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Marc Mezard & Marc Potters, 2002. "Statistical properties of stock order books: empirical results and models," Science & Finance (CFM) working paper archive 0203511, Science & Finance, Capital Fund Management.
    31. Raberto, Marco & Scalas, Enrico & Mainardi, Francesco, 2002. "Waiting-times and returns in high-frequency financial data: an empirical study," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 314(1), pages 749-755.
    32. Lillo Fabrizio & Farmer J. Doyne, 2004. "The Long Memory of the Efficient Market," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(3), pages 1-35, September.
    33. Maskawa, Jun-ichi, 2007. "Correlation of coming limit price with order book in stock markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 383(1), pages 90-95.
    34. Vasiliki Plerou & Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Xavier Gabaix & H. Eugene Stanley, 2004. "On the Origin of Power-Law Fluctuations in Stock Prices," Papers cond-mat/0403067, arXiv.org.
    35. Tian Qiu & Liang Guo & Guang Chen, 2008. "Scaling and Memory Effect in Volatility Return Interval of the Chinese Stock Market," Papers 0805.2194, arXiv.org.
    36. Zoltan Eisler & Janos Kertesz, 2006. "The dynamics of traded value revisited," Papers physics/0608018, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2007.
    37. Zhiguang (Gerald) Wang, 2009. "Volatility Risk," Issue Briefs 2009513, South Dakota State University, Department of Economics.
    38. J. de Souza & L. G. Moyano & S. M. Duarte Queirós, 2006. "On statistical properties of traded volume in financial markets," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 50(1), pages 165-168, March.
    39. Bashan, Amir & Bartsch, Ronny & Kantelhardt, Jan W. & Havlin, Shlomo, 2008. "Comparison of detrending methods for fluctuation analysis," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(21), pages 5080-5090.
    40. Constantino Tsallis & Celia Anteneodo & Lisa Borland & Roberto Osorio, 2003. "Nonextensive statistical mechanics and economics," Papers cond-mat/0301307, arXiv.org.
    41. J. Doyne Farmer & Fabrizio Lillo, 2003. "On the origin of power law tails in price fluctuations," Papers cond-mat/0309416, arXiv.org, revised Jan 2004.
    42. Lee, Kyoung Eun & Lee, Jae Woo, 2007. "Probability distribution function and multiscaling properties in the Korean stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 383(1), pages 65-70.
    43. Robert F. Engle & Jeffrey R. Russell, 1998. "Autoregressive Conditional Duration: A New Model for Irregularly Spaced Transaction Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1127-1162, September.
    44. Mainardi, Francesco & Raberto, Marco & Gorenflo, Rudolf & Scalas, Enrico, 2000. "Fractional calculus and continuous-time finance II: the waiting-time distribution," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 468-481.
    45. Kaizoji, Taisei & Kaizoji, Michiyo, 2004. "Power law for the calm-time interval of price changes," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 336(3), pages 563-570.
    46. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Marc Mezard & Marc Potters, 2002. "Statistical properties of stock order books: empirical results and models," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(4), pages 251-256.
    47. G.-H. Mu & W. Chen & J. Kertész & W.-X. Zhou, 2009. "Preferred numbers and the distributions of trade sizes and trading volumes in the Chinese stock market," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 68(1), pages 145-152, March.
    48. W.-S. Jung & F. Z. Wang & S. Havlin & T. Kaizoji & H.-T. Moon & H. E. Stanley, 2008. "Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 62(1), pages 113-119, March.
    49. Carbone, A. & Castelli, G. & Stanley, H.E., 2004. "Time-dependent Hurst exponent in financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 344(1), pages 267-271.
    50. Amir Bashan & Ronny Bartsch & Jan W. Kantelhardt & Shlomo Havlin, 2008. "Comparison of detrending methods for fluctuation analysis," Papers 0804.4081, arXiv.org.
    51. Arianos, Sergio & Carbone, Anna, 2007. "Detrending moving average algorithm: A closed-form approximation of the scaling law," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 382(1), pages 9-15.
    52. Fei Ren & Wei-Xing Zhou, 2008. "Multiscaling behavior in the volatility return intervals of Chinese indices," Papers 0809.0250, arXiv.org.
    53. Ranaldo, Angelo, 2004. "Order aggressiveness in limit order book markets," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-74, January.
    54. Ilija Zovko & J Doyne Farmer, 2002. "The power of patience: a behavioural regularity in limit-order placement," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(5), pages 387-392.
    55. Fengzhong Wang & Kazuko Yamasaki & Shlomo Havlin & H. Eugene Stanley, 2005. "Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock market," Papers physics/0511101, arXiv.org.
    56. Parameswaran Gopikrishnan & Vasiliki Plerou & Xavier Gabaix & H. Eugene Stanley, 2000. "Statistical Properties of Share Volume Traded in Financial Markets," Papers cond-mat/0008113, arXiv.org.
    57. Jaume Masoliver & Miquel Montero & George H. Weiss, 2002. "A continuous time random walk model for financial distributions," Papers cond-mat/0210513, arXiv.org.
    58. S. M.D. Queirós & L. G. Moyano & J. de Souza & C. Tsallis, 2007. "A nonextensive approach to the dynamics of financial observables," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 55(2), pages 161-167, January.
    59. F. Wang & P. Weber & K. Yamasaki & S. Havlin & H. E. Stanley, 2007. "Statistical regularities in the return intervals of volatility," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 55(2), pages 123-133, January.
    60. Kantelhardt, Jan W. & Zschiegner, Stephan A. & Koscielny-Bunde, Eva & Havlin, Shlomo & Bunde, Armin & Stanley, H.Eugene, 2002. "Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of nonstationary time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 316(1), pages 87-114.
    61. Diamond, Douglas W. & Verrecchia, Robert E., 1987. "Constraints on short-selling and asset price adjustment to private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 277-311, June.
    62. Potters, Marc & Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe, 2003. "More statistical properties of order books and price impact," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 324(1), pages 133-140.
    63. Jun-ichi Maskawa, 2007. "Correlation of coming limit price with order book in stock markets," Papers physics/0702029, arXiv.org.
    64. Easley, David & O'Hara, Maureen, 1992. "Time and the Process of Security Price Adjustment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 576-605, June.
    65. Kantelhardt, Jan W & Koscielny-Bunde, Eva & Rego, Henio H.A & Havlin, Shlomo & Bunde, Armin, 2001. "Detecting long-range correlations with detrended fluctuation analysis," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 295(3), pages 441-454.
    66. V. Plerou & P. Gopikrishnan & X. Gabaix & L. A. N. Amaral & H. E. Stanley, 2001. "Price fluctuations, market activity and trading volume," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 262-269.
    67. Tsallis, Constantino & Anteneodo, Celia & Borland, Lisa & Osorio, Roberto, 2003. "Nonextensive statistical mechanics and economics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 324(1), pages 89-100.
    68. F. Lillo, 2007. "Limit order placement as an utility maximization problem and the origin of power law distribution of limit order prices," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 55(4), pages 453-459, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Hernández, Juan Antonio & Benito, Rosa Marı´a & Losada, Juan Carlos, 2012. "An adaptive stochastic model for financial markets," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 899-908.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ruan, Yong-Ping & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2011. "Long-term correlations and multifractal nature in the intertrade durations of a liquid Chinese stock and its warrant," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 390(9), pages 1646-1654.
    2. Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Scaling in the distribution of intertrade durations of Chinese stocks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(23), pages 5818-5825.
    3. Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Detrended fluctuation analysis of intertrade durations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(4), pages 433-440.
    4. Gu, Gao-Feng & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Empirical shape function of limit-order books in the Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(21), pages 5182-5188.
    5. Ren, Fei & Gu, Gao-Feng & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Scaling and memory in the return intervals of realized volatility," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(22), pages 4787-4796.
    6. Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2010. "Complex stock trading network among investors," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(21), pages 4929-4941.
    7. Martin D. Gould & Mason A. Porter & Stacy Williams & Mark McDonald & Daniel J. Fenn & Sam D. Howison, 2013. "Limit order books," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(11), pages 1709-1742, November.
    8. Wei-Xing Zhou, 2012. "Universal price impact functions of individual trades in an order-driven market," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(8), pages 1253-1263, June.
    9. Gao-Feng Gu & Xiong Xiong & Wei Zhang & Yong-Jie Zhang & Wei-Xing Zhou, 2014. "Empirical properties of inter-cancellation durations in the Chinese stock market," Papers 1403.3478, arXiv.org.
    10. Xie, Wen-Jie & Jiang, Zhi-Qiang & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2014. "Extreme value statistics and recurrence intervals of NYMEX energy futures volatility," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 8-17.
    11. Plamen Ch Ivanov & Ainslie Yuen & Pandelis Perakakis, 2014. "Impact of Stock Market Structure on Intertrade Time and Price Dynamics," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 9(4), pages 1-14, April.
    12. Ponta, Linda & Trinh, Mailan & Raberto, Marco & Scalas, Enrico & Cincotti, Silvano, 2019. "Modeling non-stationarities in high-frequency financial time series," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 521(C), pages 173-196.
    13. Anirban Chakraborti & Ioane Muni Toke & Marco Patriarca & Frederic Abergel, 2011. "Econophysics review: II. Agent-based models," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(7), pages 1013-1041.
    14. Gu, Gao-Feng & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Empirical regularities of order placement in the Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(13), pages 3173-3182.
    15. Gu, Gao-Feng & Ren, Fei & Ni, Xiao-Hui & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2010. "Empirical regularities of opening call auction in Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 389(2), pages 278-286.
    16. Ren, Fei & Guo, Liang & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2009. "Statistical properties of volatility return intervals of Chinese stocks," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(6), pages 881-890.
    17. Anirban Chakraborti & Ioane Muni Toke & Marco Patriarca & Frederic Abergel, 2011. "Econophysics review: I. Empirical facts," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(7), pages 991-1012.
    18. Zhi-Qiang Jiang & Askery Canabarro & Boris Podobnik & H. Eugene Stanley & Wei-Xing Zhou, 2016. "Early warning of large volatilities based on recurrence interval analysis in Chinese stock markets," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(11), pages 1713-1724, November.
    19. Gu, Gao-Feng & Xiong, Xiong & Zhang, Yong-Jie & Chen, Wei & Zhang, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2016. "Stylized facts of price gaps in limit order books," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 48-58.
    20. Scalas, Enrico, 2006. "The application of continuous-time random walks in finance and economics," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 362(2), pages 225-239.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:389:y:2010:i:14:p:2751-2761. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.journals.elsevier.com/physica-a-statistical-mechpplications/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.