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Spatial competition and price formation

Author

Listed:
  • Nagel, Kai
  • Shubik, Martin
  • Paczuski, Maya
  • Bak, Per

Abstract

We look at price formation in a retail setting, that is, companies set prices, and consumers either accept prices or go someplace else. In contrast to most other models in this context, we use a two-dimensional spatial structure for information transmission, that is, consumers can only learn from nearest neighbors. Many aspects of this can be understood in terms of generalized evolutionary dynamics. In consequence, we first look at spatial competition and cluster formation without price. This leads to establishement size distributions, which we compare to reality. After some theoretical considerations, which at least heuristically explain our simulation results, we finally return to price formation, where we demonstrate that our simple model with nearly no organized planning or rationality on the part of any of the agents indeed leads to an economically plausible price.

Suggested Citation

  • Nagel, Kai & Shubik, Martin & Paczuski, Maya & Bak, Per, 2000. "Spatial competition and price formation," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 546-562.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:phsmap:v:287:y:2000:i:3:p:546-562
    DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4371(00)00392-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Per Bak & Simon F. Norrelykke & Martin Shubik, 1998. "The Dynamics of Money," Papers cond-mat/9811094, arXiv.org, revised May 1999.
    2. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    3. Burkhard Hehenkamp & Wolfgang Leininger, 1999. "A note on evolutionary stability of Bertrand equilibrium," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 367-371.
    4. Hehenkamp, Burkhard, 2002. "Sluggish Consumers: An Evolutionary Solution to the Bertrand Paradox," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 44-76, July.
    5. Stanley, Michael H. R. & Buldyrev, Sergey V. & Havlin, Shlomo & Mantegna, Rosario N. & Salinger, Michael A. & Eugene Stanley, H., 1995. "Zipf plots and the size distribution of firms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 453-457, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tomoya Mori & Koji Nishikimi & Tony E. Smith, 2008. "The Number-Average Size Rule: A New Empirical Relationship Between Industrial Location And City Size," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 48(1), pages 165-211.
    2. D'Hulst, R. & Rodgers, G.J., 2001. "Business size distributions," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 328-333.
    3. Diem Nguyen & Vicki McCracken & Ken Casavant & Eric Jessup, 2011. "Geographic location, ownership and profitability of Washington log trucking companies," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 115-125, June.
    4. Tomoya Mori & Koji Nishikimi & Tony E. Smith, 2002. "Some Empirical Regularities of Spatial Economies: A Relationship between Industrial Location and City Size," KIER Working Papers 551, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.
    5. Tomoya Mori & Tony E. Smith, 2009. "A Reconsideration of the NAS Rule from an Industrial Agglomeration Perspective," KIER Working Papers 669, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.

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    Keywords

    Econophysics; Economics; Simulation; Markets;

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