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The Dynamics of Money

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  • Per Bak
  • Simon F. Norrelykke
  • Martin Shubik

Abstract

We present a dynamical many-body theory of money in which the value of money is a time dependent ``strategic variable'' that is chosen by the individual agents. The value of money in equilibrium is not fixed by the equations, and thus represents a continuous symmetry. The dynamics breaks this continuous symmetry by fixating the value of money at a level which depends on initial conditions. The fluctuations around the equilibrium, for instance in the presence of noise, are governed by the ``Goldstone modes'' associated with the broken symmetry. The idea is illustrated by a simple network model of monopolistic vendors and buyers.

Suggested Citation

  • Per Bak & Simon F. Norrelykke & Martin Shubik, 1998. "The Dynamics of Money," Papers cond-mat/9811094, arXiv.org, revised May 1999.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:cond-mat/9811094
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
    2. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Didier Sornette, 1994. "The Black-Scholes option pricing problem in mathematical finance: generalization and extensions for a large class of stochastic processes," Science & Finance (CFM) working paper archive 500040, Science & Finance, Capital Fund Management.
    3. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
    4. Stutzer, Michael, 1996. " A Simple Nonparametric Approach to Derivative Security Valuation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1633-1652, December.
    5. Dybvig, Philip H & Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr, 1982. "Mean-Variance Theory in Complete Markets," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 233-251, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Newby, Michael & Behr, Adam & Feizabadi, Mitra Shojania, 2011. "Investigating the distribution of personal income obtained from the recent U.S. data," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1170-1173, May.
    2. Nagel, Kai & Shubik, Martin & Paczuski, Maya & Bak, Per, 2000. "Spatial competition and price formation," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 546-562.
    3. repec:eee:phsmap:v:482:y:2017:i:c:p:118-126 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. McCauley, Joseph L., 2000. "The futility of utility: how market dynamics marginalize Adam Smith," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 285(3), pages 506-538.
    5. Chen-Zhong Qin & Lloyd S. Shapley & Martin Shubik, 2009. "Marshallian Money, Welfare, and Side-Payments," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1729, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    6. McCauley, Joseph L., 2004. "Making dynamic modelling effective in economics," MPRA Paper 2130, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Nagel, Kai & Shubik, Martin & Strauss, Martin, 2004. "The importance of timescales: simple models for economic markets," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 340(4), pages 668-677.
    8. Juergen Huber & Martin Shubik & Shyam Sunder, 2009. "Default Penalty as a Disciplinary and Selection Mechanism in Presence of Multiple Equilibria," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1730, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    9. McCauley, Joseph l., 2004. "Thermodynamic analogies in economics and finance: instability of markets," MPRA Paper 2159, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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