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Match rigging and the career concerns of referees


  • Boeri, Tito
  • Severgnini, Battista


This paper contributes to the literature on career concerns and corruption by drawing on extensive information on the performance of referees and records from Calciopoli, a judicial inquiry carried out in 2006 on corruption in the Italian football league. Unlike previous studies, we can analyse in detail the assignment of the referees to the most important matches, which is an important step in their career. Moreover, we can relate this choice to the performance of referees in previous matches and the evaluations they received in this context. We find that referees involved in match rigging were promoted to top games and that their evaluation was not negatively affected by their involvement in documented episodes of match rigging.

Suggested Citation

  • Boeri, Tito & Severgnini, Battista, 2011. "Match rigging and the career concerns of referees," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 349-359, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:18:y:2011:i:3:p:349-359

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Takeshi Amemiya, 1975. "Qualitative Response Models," NBER Chapters,in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 4, number 3, pages 363-372 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Christopher A. Parsons & Johan Sulaeman & Michael C. Yates & Daniel S. Hamermesh, 2007. "Strike Three: Umpires' Demand for Discrimination," NBER Working Papers 13665, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Edward L. Glaeser & Claudia Goldin, 2006. "Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number glae06-1, January.
    4. Boeri, Tito & Severgnini, Battista, 2008. "The Italian Job: Match Rigging, Career Concerns and Media Concentration in Serie A," IZA Discussion Papers 3745, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Ernesto Dal Bo & Rafael Di Tella, 2003. "Capture by Threat," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(5), pages 1123-1152, October.
    6. Weiler, William C., 1986. "A sequential logit model of the access effects of higher education institutions," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 49-55, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tito Boeri & Battista Severgnini, 2014. "The decline of professional football in Italy," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Economics of Professional Football, chapter 19, pages 322-335 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Christian Deutscher & Eugen Dimant & Brad R. Humphreys, 2017. "Match Fixing and Sports Betting in Football: Empirical Evidence from the German Bundesliga," Working Papers 17-01, Department of Economics, West Virginia University.
    3. Babatunde Buraimo & Giuseppe Migali & Robert Simmons, 2016. "An Analysis of Consumer Response to Corruption: Italy's Calciopoli Scandal," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 78(1), pages 22-41, February.
    4. Michael J. Lopez, 2016. "Persuaded Under Pressure: Evidence From The National Football League," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 54(4), pages 1763-1773, October.
    5. Thomas Dohmen & Jan Sauermann, 2016. "Referee Bias," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 679-695, September.
    6. Barry Reilly & Robert Witt, 2016. "Disciplinary Sanction and Social Pressure in English Premiership Soccer," Working Paper Series 8816, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
    7. John K. Wilson & Richard Pomfret, 2014. "Public Policy and Professional Sports," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15381.
    8. Alessandro Innocenti & Tommaso Nannicini & Roberto Ricciuti, 2012. "The Importance of Betting Early," Labsi Experimental Economics Laboratory University of Siena 037, University of Siena.
    9. Babatunde Buraimo & Giuseppe Migali & Robert Simmons, 2014. "An analysis of consumer response to corruption," Working Papers 64473209, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    10. Andrews, Matt & Harrington, Peter, 2016. "Off Pitch: Football's Financial Integrity Weaknesses, and How to Strengthen Them," Working Paper Series 16-009, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.


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