Price promotions, operations cost, and profit in a two-stage supply chain
The phenomenon in which demand variability increases as one moves upstream in the supply chain has been often observed in practice. This so-called “bullwhip effect” often increases upstream operations costs, including inventory holding and transportation costs. Price variations are considered to be one of the primary causes of the bullwhip effect, and thus everyday low price (EDLP) strategies are commonly recommended to counter the negative impacts of the bullwhip effect. However, trade promotions continue to play an important role in the U.S. supermarket industry as well as other industries. This paper investigates this apparent inconsistency between the literature and practice by employing a deterministic, two-stage supply chain model composed of a single supplier and a single retailer. We demonstrate that even though the use of trade promotions can indeed increase a retailer's and supplier's operations costs, these costs may be more than offset by increased revenues, even in the absence of explicit coordination. That is, if the supplier judiciously applies a trade promotion strategy and the retailer passes some of this discount to its customers, then under certain conditions, the resulting supply chain profit can exceed that under an EDLP strategy. We provide a broad set of computational results that validate this conclusion and discuss the resulting managerial insights.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 40 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/375/description#description|
|Order Information:|| Postal: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/supportfaq.cws_home/regional|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- LAURENT, Gilles & CHANDON, Pierre & WANSINK, Brian, 2000. "A benefit congruency framework of sales promotion effectiveness," Les Cahiers de Recherche 698, HEC Paris.
- Robert C. Blattberg & Richard Briesch & Edward J. Fox, 1995. "How Promotions Work," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 14(3_supplem), pages G122-G132.
- Gérard P. Cachon, 1999. "Managing Supply Chain Demand Variability with Scheduled Ordering Policies," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(6), pages 843-856, June.
- Hau L. Lee & V. Padmanabhan & Seungjin Whang, 1997. "Information Distortion in a Supply Chain: The Bullwhip Effect," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(4), pages 546-558, April.
- Ramasesh, Ranga V., 2010. "Lot-sizing decisions under limited-time price incentives: A review," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 118-135, June.
- Ardalan, Alireza, 1994. "Optimal prices and order quantities when temporary price discounts result in increase in demand," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 52-61, January.
- Sterman, John D., 1989. "Misperceptions of feedback in dynamic decision making," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 301-335, June.
- Frank Chen & Zvi Drezner & Jennifer K. Ryan & David Simchi-Levi, 2000. "Quantifying the Bullwhip Effect in a Simple Supply Chain: The Impact of Forecasting, Lead Times, and Information," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(3), pages 436-443, March.
- Arcelus, F. J. & Shah, Nita H. & Srinivasan, G., 2001. "Retailer's response to special sales: price discount vs. trade credit," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 417-428, October.
- Gavirneni, Srinagesh, 2006. "Price fluctuations, information sharing, and supply chain performance," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 174(3), pages 1651-1663, November.
- David R. Bell & James M. Lattin, 1998. "Shopping Behavior and Consumer Preference for Store Price Format: Why “Large Basket” Shoppers Prefer EDLP," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 17(1), pages 66-88.
- Hosoda, Takamichi & Disney, Stephen M., 2006. "On variance amplification in a three-echelon supply chain with minimum mean square error forecasting," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 344-358, August.
- Gilles Laurent & Pierre Chandon & Brian Wansink, 2000. "A Benefit Congruency Framework of Sales Promotion Effectiveness," Post-Print hal-00458440, HAL.
- Potter, Andrew & Disney, Stephen M., 2006. "Bullwhip and batching: An exploration," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(2), pages 408-418, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:40:y:2012:i:6:p:891-905. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shamier, Wendy)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.