IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jomega/v103y2021ics0305048321000372.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Downstream entry revisited: Economic effects of entry in vertically-related markets

Author

Listed:
  • Yenipazarli, Arda

Abstract

The earlier studies on the effects of entry in a downstream market where vertically-related and symmetric retailers resell a product purchased from an upstream manufacturer propose that if the downstream market is monopolized by the incumbent retailer and/or the (inverse) consumer demand function is linear, then the equilibrium wholesale price charged by the upstream manufacturer is invariant to the entry of his new downstream retailers. Consequently, in accordance with the conventional economic wisdom, entry raises the downstream-market quantity, lowers the consumer price therein and reduces the incumbent retailer’s profits. We disclose that all those effects of downstream entry under restrictive market conditions are reversed with the presence of a vertically-related retailer who serves a separate (and asymmetric) market in the distribution channel. Contingent on the degree of asymmetry on demand potential between two markets and the extent of product substitutability, downstream entry may: (1) have a positive/negative spillover effect on the upstream manufacturer’s equilibrium wholesale price; (2) raise both the downstream-market quantity and consumer price; and/or (3) increase the incumbent retailer’s profit. All those and other effects of entry in downstream markets adduced in extant literature vary with demand- and competition-related factors across downstream markets in a distribution channel.

Suggested Citation

  • Yenipazarli, Arda, 2021. "Downstream entry revisited: Economic effects of entry in vertically-related markets," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 103(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:103:y:2021:i:c:s0305048321000372
    DOI: 10.1016/j.omega.2021.102428
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305048321000372
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.omega.2021.102428?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Liu, Guanmei & Shao, Xiaofeng & Lang, Xiao, 2020. "On the interaction of technology upgrade and buyer entry in a supply chain," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 221(C).
    2. Rajeev K. Tyagi, 1999. "On the Effects of Downstream Entry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(1), pages 59-73, January.
    3. Rabah Amir & Val E. Lambson, 2000. "On the Effects of Entry in Cournot Markets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 67(2), pages 235-254.
    4. Bakaouka, Elpiniki & Milliou, Chrysovalantou, 2018. "Vertical licensing, input pricing, and entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 66-96.
    5. Deming Zhou & Uday S. Karmarkar & Bo Jiang, 2015. "Competition in multi-echelon distributive supply chains with linear demand," International Journal of Production Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(22), pages 6787-6807, November.
    6. Arijit Mukherjee & Laixun Zhao, 2017. "Profit Raising Entry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(1), pages 214-219, March.
    7. Jonathan Haskel & Raffaella Sadun, 2012. "Regulation and UK Retailing Productivity: Evidence from Microdata," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 79(315), pages 425-448, July.
    8. Konur, Dinçer & Geunes, Joseph, 2016. "Supplier wholesale pricing for a retail chain: Implications of centralized vs. decentralized retailing and procurement under quantity competition," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 98-110.
    9. Raffaella Sadun, 2015. "Does Planning Regulation Protect Independent Retailers?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(5), pages 983-1001, December.
    10. Pinopoulos, Ioannis N., 2011. "Input pricing by an upstream monopolist into imperfectly competitive downstream markets," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 144-151, September.
    11. Liu, Hao & Jiang, Wei & Feng, Gengzhong & Chin, Kwai-Sang, 2020. "Information leakage and supply chain contracts," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    12. Anil Arya & Brian Mittendorf, 2010. "Input Price Discrimination When Buyers Operate In Multiple Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(4), pages 846-867, December.
    13. Francisco Galera & Pedro Mendi & Juan Carlos Molero, 2017. "Quality Differences, Third-Degree Price Discrimination, And Welfare," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 55(1), pages 339-351, January.
    14. Caliskan Demirag, Ozgun & Xue, Weili & Wang, Jie, 2021. "Retailers’ Order Timing Strategies under Competition and Demand Uncertainty," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    15. Ashiya, Masahiro, 2000. "Weak entrants are welcome," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 975-984, August.
    16. Deng, Sijing & Fu, Ke & Xu, Jiayan & Zhu, Kaijie, 2021. "The supply chain effects of trade credit under uncertain demands," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
    17. Lan, Yanfei & Yan, Haikuan & Ren, Da & Guo, Rui, 2019. "Merger strategies in a supply chain with asymmetric capital-constrained retailers upon market power dependent trade credit," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 299-318.
    18. Junichiro Ishida & Toshihiro Matsumura & Noriaki Matsushima, 2011. "Market Competition, R&D And Firm Profits In Asymmetric Oligopoly," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 484-505, September.
    19. Panle Jia, 2008. "What Happens When Wal-Mart Comes to Town: An Empirical Analysis of the Discount Retailing Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(6), pages 1263-1316, November.
    20. Ikuo Ishibashi & Noriaki Matsushima, 2009. "The Existence of Low-End Firms May Help High-End Firms," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(1), pages 136-147, 01-02.
    21. Arijit Mukherjee & Achintya Ray, 2014. "Entry, Profit and Welfare under Asymmetric R&D Costs," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82(3), pages 284-295, June.
    22. Yongmin Chen & Michael H. Riordan, 2007. "Price and Variety in the Spokes Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(522), pages 897-921, July.
    23. Altug, Mehmet Sekip, 2016. "Supply chain contracting for vertically differentiated products," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 171(P1), pages 34-45.
    24. Koulamas, Christos & Kyparisis, George J, 2010. "A note on the effects of downstream efficiency on upstream pricing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 200(3), pages 926-928, February.
    25. Bian, Junsong & Zhao, Xuan, 2020. "Tax or subsidy? An analysis of environmental policies in supply chains with retail competition," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 283(3), pages 901-914.
    26. Asoo J. Vakharia & Lan Wang, 2014. "Uniform vs. Retailer-Specific Pricing: Incentive Alignment to Enhance Supply Chain Efficiency," Production and Operations Management, Production and Operations Management Society, vol. 23(7), pages 1176-1182, July.
    27. Mukherjee, Arijit, 2019. "Profit raising entry in a vertical structure," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 1-1.
    28. Pal, Debashis & Sarkar, Jyotirmoy, 2001. "A Stackelberg Oligopoly with Nonidentical Firms," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(2), pages 127-134, April.
    29. Charles J. Corbett & Uday S. Karmarkar, 2001. "Competition and Structure in Serial Supply Chains with Deterministic Demand," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(7), pages 966-978, July.
    30. Soo-Haeng Cho, 2014. "Horizontal Mergers in Multitier Decentralized Supply Chains," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 60(2), pages 356-379, February.
    31. Paul W. Dobson & Michael Waterson, 2005. "Chain‐Store Pricing Across Local Markets," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 93-119, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Arijit Mukherjee & Achintya Ray, 2014. "Entry, Profit and Welfare under Asymmetric R&D Costs," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82(3), pages 284-295, June.
    2. Luciano Fanti & Domenico Buccella, 2017. "Profit raising entry effects in network industries with Corporate Social Responsibility," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 6(3), pages 59-68.
    3. Naylor, Robin & Soegaard, Christian, 2018. "The Effects of Entry in Oligopolistic Trade with Bargained Input Prices," Economic Research Papers 269084, University of Warwick - Department of Economics.
    4. Mukherjee, Arijit, 2019. "Profit raising entry in a vertical structure," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 1-1.
    5. Cao, Zong-Hong & Zhou, Yong-Wu & Zhao, Ju & Li, Chang-Wen, 2015. "Entry mode selection and its impact on an incumbent supply chain coordination," Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 1-13.
    6. Petros G. Sekeris & Kevin Siqueira, 2021. "Payoff-Improving Competition: Games with Negative Externalities," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 58(3), pages 455-474, May.
    7. Matsushima, Noriaki & Mizuno, Tomomichi, 2012. "Profit-enhancing competitive pressure in vertically related industries," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 142-152.
    8. Junichi Haraguchi & Toshihiro Matsumura, 2021. "Profit‐enhancing entries in mixed oligopolies," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 88(1), pages 33-55, July.
    9. Junichiro Ishida & Toshihiro Matsumura & Noriaki Matsushima, 2011. "Market Competition, R&D And Firm Profits In Asymmetric Oligopoly," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 484-505, September.
    10. Haraguchi, Junichi & Matsumura, Toshihiro, 2017. "Firms' Costs, Profits, Entries, and Innovation under Optimal Privatization Policy," MPRA Paper 80927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Sanchez-Vidal, Maria, 2019. "Retail shocks and city structure," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 103394, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    12. Fanti, Luciano & Meccheri, Nicola, 2014. "Profits and competition under alternative technologies in a unionized duopoly with product differentiation," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 157-168.
    13. Fabiano Schivardi & Eliana Viviano, 2011. "Entry Barriers in Retail Trade," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(551), pages 145-170, March.
    14. Florin Maican & Matilda Orth, 2017. "Productivity Dynamics and the Role of ‘Big-Box’ Entrants in Retailing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 397-438, June.
    15. Maria Sanchez Vidal, 2016. "Small shops for sale! The effects of big-box openings on grocery stores," Working Papers 2016/12, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    16. Ioannis N. Pinopoulos, 2014. "A note on the effects of downstream free entry on wholesale pricing," Discussion Paper Series 2014_05, Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, revised Sep 2014.
    17. Liu, Guanmei & Shao, Xiaofeng & Lang, Xiao, 2020. "On the interaction of technology upgrade and buyer entry in a supply chain," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 221(C).
    18. Glock, Christoph H. & Kim, Taebok, 2015. "The effect of forward integration on a single-vendor–multi-retailer supply chain under retailer competition," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 179-192.
    19. Özelkan, Ertunga C. & ÇakanyIldIrIm, Metin, 2009. "Reverse bullwhip effect in pricing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 192(1), pages 302-312, January.
    20. Maria Sánchez-Vidal, 2019. "Retail shocks and city structure," CEP Discussion Papers dp1636, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jomega:v:103:y:2021:i:c:s0305048321000372. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/375/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/375/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.