Scientists’ transition to academic entrepreneurship: Economic and psychological determinants
This study investigated academic scientists’ transition to entrepreneurship by studying their academic entrepreneurial intentions (to found a business in order to market their research knowledge) and actual founding behavior. We developed and tested a conceptual model integrating both economic and psychological perspectives. Applying the theory of planned behavior, we examined the economic factors (scientists’ human capital, social capital, expected entrepreneurial benefits) as distal predictors (background factors) of academic entrepreneurial intentions. The psychological factors (entrepreneurial attitudes, norms, control perceptions) were examined as proximal intention predictors. Findings were derived from a path analysis utilizing archival and survey data on German scientists (N=496). We found that attitudes and perceived control predicted entrepreneurial intentions. Social norms in turn had no effect. As regards the economic factors, human and social capital exhibited indirect effects on intentions via entrepreneurial attitudes and control perceptions, while additional direct effects of both capitals showed up significantly as well. Expected benefits from engaging in academic entrepreneurship (i.e., expected financial and reputational gain) only showed indirect effects on intentions via attitudes and perceived control. In addition, longitudinal results indicated that entrepreneurial intentions indeed forecasted entrepreneurial behavior, while certain barriers have a diminishing influence on this relationship. Our results are discussed with an emphasis on the long-neglected importance of the interplay of economic and psychological determinants for scientists’ transition to academic entrepreneurship.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mansfield, Edwin, 1998. "Academic research and industrial innovation: An update of empirical findings1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(7-8), pages 773-776, April.
- Kim, Phillip H. & Aldrich, Howard E., 2005. "Social Capital and Entrepreneurship," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 1(2), pages 55-104, June.
- Ajzen, Icek, 1991. "The theory of planned behavior," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 179-211, December.
- Ozgen, Eren & Baron, Robert A., 2007. "Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: Effects of mentors, industry networks, and professional forums," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 174-192, March.
- David Audretsch, 2009.
"The entrepreneurial society,"
The Journal of Technology Transfer,
Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 245-254, June.
- Schultz, Theodore W, 1980. " Investment in Entrepreneurial Ability," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 82(4), pages 437-48.
- Ronstadt, Robert, 1988. "The Corridor Principle," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 31-40.
- KruegerJR, Norris F. & Reilly, Michael D. & Carsrud, Alan L., 2000. "Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 411-432.
- Lee, Lena & Wong, Poh Kam & Foo, Maw Der & Leung, Aegean, 2009.
"Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors,"
16195, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lee, Lena & Wong, Poh Kam & Foo, Maw Der & Leung, Aegean, 2011. "Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 124-136, January.
- Unger, Jens M. & Rauch, Andreas & Frese, Michael & Rosenbusch, Nina, 2011. "Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 341-358, May.
- Souitaris, Vangelis & Zerbinati, Stefania & Al-Laham, Andreas, 2007. "Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 566-591, July.
- Aldridge, T. Taylor & Audretsch, David, 2011. "The Bayh-Dole Act and scientist entrepreneurship," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(8), pages 1058-1067, October.
- Bozeman, Barry & Mangematin, Vincent, 2004. "Editor's introduction: building and deploying scientific and technical human capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 565-568, May.
- Pavitt, Keith, 1998. "The social shaping of the national science base," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 793-805, December.
- Frank T. Rothaermel & Shanti D. Agung & Lin Jiang, 2007. "University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 691-791, August.
- Landry, Rejean & Amara, Nabil & Rherrad, Imad, 2006. "Why are some university researchers more likely to create spin-offs than others? Evidence from Canadian universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1599-1615, December.
- Nicola Lacetera, 2009. "Academic entrepreneurship," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(7), pages 443-464.
- Krabel, Stefan & Mueller, Pamela, 2009. "What drives scientists to start their own company?: An empirical investigation of Max Planck Society scientists," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 947-956, July.
- Etzkowitz, Henry, 1998. "The norms of entrepreneurial science: cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 823-833, December.
- Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-48, August.
- Lam, Alice, 2010.
"What motivates academic scientists to engage in research commercialization: ‘gold’, ‘ribbon’ or ‘puzzle’?,"
30849, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lam, Alice, 2011. "What motivates academic scientists to engage in research commercialization: ‘Gold’, ‘ribbon’ or ‘puzzle’?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1354-1368.
- Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
- Audretsch, David B & Stephan, Paula E, 1996. "Company-Scientist Locational Links: The Case of Biotechnology," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 641-52, June.
- Acs, Zoltan J & Audretsch, David B, 1989. "Patents as a Measure of Innovative Activity," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 171-80.
- Mikael Samuelsson & Per Davidsson, 2009. "Does venture opportunity variation matter? Investigating systematic process differences between innovative and imitative new ventures," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 229-255, August.
- Levin, Sharon G & Stephan, Paula E, 1991. "Research Productivity over the Life Cycle: Evidence for Academic Scientists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 114-32, March.
- Magnus Gulbrandsen, 2012. "“But Peter’s in it for the money” – the liminality of entrepreneurial scientists," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20120323, Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo.
- Fiona Murray & Leigh Graham, 2007. "Buying science and selling science: gender differences in the market for commercial science," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(4), pages 657-689, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:joepsy:v:33:y:2012:i:3:p:628-641. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.