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Effects of Japanese compulsory educational reforms on household educational expenditure

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  • Kubota, Kohei

Abstract

This study investigates the effects of the 2002 Japanese reforms of compulsory education on household expenditure on supplementary schooling and out-of-school activities for junior high school students. These reforms marked a dramatic change in Japan's compulsory education system in two main respects: from April 2002, every Saturday became a public school holiday and instructional time was reduced following the government's revisions of national curriculum guidelines, leaving private schools largely unaffected. Based on aggregate data taken from the Child Study Expenditure Survey, the difference-in-differences estimation—households with children attending public schools as the treatment group and those attending private schools as the control group—reveals that the 2002 educational reforms increased target household expenditure on supplementary education by 13% and spending on outdoor activities/volunteering, arts, sports, and cultural activities by 23%. Disaggregated analysis based on microdata taken from the National Survey of Family Income and Expenditure carried out by the Bureau of Statistics further reveals that the impacts of these educational reforms were larger for higher-income households than for lower-income ones.

Suggested Citation

  • Kubota, Kohei, 2016. "Effects of Japanese compulsory educational reforms on household educational expenditure," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 47-60.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:42:y:2016:i:c:p:47-60
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jjie.2016.10.003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Michio Naoi & Hideo Akabayashi & Ryosuke Nakamura & Kayo Nozaki & Shinpei Sano & Wataru Senoh & Chizuru Shikishima, 2017. "Causal Effects of Family Income on Child Outcomes and Educational Spending: Evidence from a Child Allowance Policy Reform in Japan," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2017-026, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.

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