Health in the cities: When the neighborhood matters more than income
Using a rich Italian cross-sectional dataset, we estimate the effect of a neighborhood problems aggregate (including pollution, crime, and noise) on self-assessed health, presence of chronic conditions and limitations in daily activities. We address the self-selection of the residents in their neighborhoods, as well as the possible endogeneity of income with respect to health, through instrumental variable methods and several endogeneity tests. The main novelty is the sound estimation of the neighborhood effect on health using observational data, which has the advantage of providing general results that are not dependent on any experimental design. This allows us to fully compare the neighborhood effect with the traditional socioeconomic determinants of health. Our main findings are that low quality neighborhoods are strongly health damaging. This effect is comparable to the primary/upper secondary education health differential and is even higher than the impact that poor economic circumstances have on health.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Vincenzo Carrieri & Marcel Bilger, 2010. "Dimmi Dove Vivi E Ti Dirò Come Stai: Un’Indagine Empirica Sugli Effetti Della Deprivazione Del Quartiere Di Residenza Sui Risultati Di Salute," Working Papers 201003, Università della Calabria, Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza (Ex Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica).
- Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001.
"Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 116(2), pages 607-654.
- Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2000. "Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment," NBER Working Papers 7973, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wilkinson, Richard G & Pickett, Kate E., 2006. "Income inequality and population health: A review and explanation of the evidence," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 62(7), pages 1768-1784, April.
- Macintyre, Sally & Ellaway, Anne & Cummins, Steven, 2002. "Place effects on health: how can we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 125-139, July.
- Irma T. Elo & Laryssa Mykyta & Rachel Margolis & Jennifer F. Culhane, 2009. "Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1298-1320.
- Chappie, Mike & Lave, Lester, 1982. "The health effects of air pollution: A reanalysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 346-376, November.
- Peter Adams & Michael D. Hurd & Daniel L. McFadden & Angela Merrill & Tiago Ribeiro, 2004.
"Healthy, Wealthy, and Wise? Tests for Direct Causal Paths between Health and Socioeconomic Status,"
in: Perspectives on the Economics of Aging, pages 415-526
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Adams, Peter & Hurd, Michael D. & McFadden, Daniel & Merrill, Angela & Ribeiro, Tiago, 2003. "Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 3-56, January.
- Trogdon, Justin G. & Nonnemaker, James & Pais, Joanne, 2008. "Peer effects in adolescent overweight," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 1388-1399, September.
- James P. Smith, 1999. "Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation between Health and Economic Status," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(2), pages 145-166, Spring.
- Mikael Lindahl, 2005.
"Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as an Exogenous Source of Variation in Income,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(1).
- Lindahl, Mikael, 2002. "Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as Exogenous of Variation in Income," IZA Discussion Papers 442, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cutler, David & Lleras-Muney, Adriana & Deaton, Angus, 2006.
"The Determinants of Mortality,"
2640588, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- David M. Cutler & Angus S. Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," NBER Working Papers 11963, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Cutler & Angus Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2005. "The Determinants of Mortality," Working Papers 235, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- David M. Cutler & Angus S. Deaton & Adriana Lleras-Muney, 2006. "The Determinants of Mortality," Working Papers id:359, eSocialSciences.
- Yannis M. Ioannides & Giorgio Topa, 2010.
"Neighborhood Effects: Accomplishments And Looking Beyond Them,"
Journal of Regional Science,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(1), pages 343-362.
- Yannis M. Ioannides & Giorgio Topa, 2009. "Neighborhood Effects: Accomplishments and Looking Beyond Them," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0736, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
- Evans, William N & Oates, Wallace E & Schwab, Robert M, 1992. "Measuring Peer Group Effects: A Study of Teenage Behavior," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(5), pages 966-91, October.
- Joyce, Theodore J. & Grossman, Michael & Goldman, Fred, 1989.
"An assessment of the benefits of air pollution control: The case of infant health,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 32-51, January.
- Theodore J. Joyce & Michael Grossman & Fred Goldman, 1986. "An Assessment of the Benefits of Air Pollution Control: The Case of Infant Health," NBER Working Papers 1928, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neidell, Matthew J., 2004. "Air pollution, health, and socio-economic status: the effect of outdoor air quality on childhood asthma," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 1209-1236, November.
- Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
- Jeffrey R Kling & Jeffrey B Liebman & Lawrence F Katz, 2007.
"Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects,"
Econometric Society, vol. 75(1), pages 83-119, 01.
- Charles F. Manski, 1993. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 531-542.
- Isaac Bayoh & Elena G. Irwin & Timothy Haab, 2006. "Determinants of Residential Location Choice: How Important Are Local Public Goods in Attracting Homeowners to Central City Locations?," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(1), pages 97-120.
- Tullio Jappelli & Marco Pagano, 1994. "Personal Saving in Italy," NBER Chapters, in: International Comparisons of Household Saving, pages 237-268 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Terza, Joseph V. & Basu, Anirban & Rathouz, Paul J., 2008. "Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: Addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 531-543, May.
- Jens Ludwig & Greg J. Duncan & Paul Hirschfield, 2001. "Urban Poverty and Juvenile Crime: Evidence from a Randomized Housing-Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(2), pages 655-679.
- Eddy van Doorslaer & Xander Koolman & Andrew M. Jones, 2004. "Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 629-647.
- Ettner, Susan L., 1996. "New evidence on the relationship between income and health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 67-85, February.
- Karvonen, Sakari & Rimpelä, Arja, 1996. "Socio-regional context as a determinant of adolescents' health behaviour in Finland," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 43(10), pages 1467-1474, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:32:y:2013:i:1:p:1-11. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.