IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Does acquiring venture capital pay off for the funded firms? A meta-analysis on the relationship between venture capital investment and funded firm financial performance

  • Rosenbusch, Nina
  • Brinckmann, Jan
  • Müller, Verena
Registered author(s):

    Researchers and practitioners frequently propose that venture capital (VC) is an important resource to increase the performance of funded firms, especially in environments of uncertainty. In this paper we scrutinize these theoretical propositions, following an evidence-based research approach. We synthesize 76 empirical samples on 36,567 firms. We find a small positive performance effect of VC investment on funded firm performance; however, the effect vanishes if researchers control for industry selection effects. Furthermore, we find that the performance effect mainly relates to firm growth while profitability is unaffected. We also uncover that performance effects are reduced when the funded firms are very young or very mature. In addition, studies focusing on IPO events, which constitute the majority of studies, determine a substantially smaller performance effect. We discuss theoretical implications and offer suggestions for future research on VC.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0883902612000638
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Venturing.

    Volume (Year): 28 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 335-353

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:28:y:2013:i:3:p:335-353
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbusvent

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. William J. Wilhelm & Alexander Ljungqvist, 2002. "IPO Pricing in the Dot-com Bubble," OFRC Working Papers Series 2002fe07, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
    2. Kaplan, Steven N. & Strömberg, Per, 2003. "Characteristics, Contracts and Actions: Evidence from Venture Capitalist Analyses," SIFR Research Report Series 14, Institute for Financial Research.
    3. Joshua Lerner, 1994. "The Syndication of Venture Capital Investments," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
    4. Jain, Bharat A. & Jayaraman, Narayanan & Kini, Omesh, 2008. "The path-to-profitability of Internet IPO firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 165-194, March.
    5. Arthurs, Jonathan D. & Busenitz, Lowell W., 2006. "Dynamic capabilities and venture performance: The effects of venture capitalists," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 195-215, March.
    6. Chen, Chung-Jen, 2009. "Technology commercialization, incubator and venture capital, and new venture performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 93-103, January.
    7. Tykvova, Tereza & Walz, Uwe, 2007. "How important is participation of different venture capitalists in German IPOs?," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 350-378, 03.
    8. Xin Chang & André F. Gygax & Elaine Oon & Hong Feng Zhang, 2008. "Audit quality, auditor compensation and initial public offering underpricing," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 48(3), pages 391-416.
    9. Lerner, Josh, 1999. "The Government as Venture Capitalist: The Long-Run Impact of the SBIR Program," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(3), pages 285-318, July.
    10. Sapienza, Harry J. & Manigart, Sophie & Vermeir, Wim, 1996. "Venture capitalist governance and value added in four countries," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 439-469, November.
    11. Benston, George J, 1973. "Required Disclosure and the Stock Market: An Evaluation of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 132-55, March.
    12. L.A.A. Van den Berghe & Abigail Levrau, 2002. "The Role of the Venture Capitalist as Monitor of the Company: a corporate governance perspective," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(3), pages 124-135, 07.
    13. Gompers, Paul A., 1996. "Grandstanding in the venture capital industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 133-156, September.
    14. Paul Gompers & Josh Lerner, 2001. "The Venture Capital Revolution," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 145-168, Spring.
    15. Zacharakis, Andrew L. & Shepherd, Dean A., 2001. "The nature of information and overconfidence on venture capitalists' decision making," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 311-332, July.
    16. Baum, Joel A. C. & Silverman, Brian S., 2004. "Picking winners or building them? Alliance, intellectual, and human capital as selection criteria in venture financing and performance of biotechnology startups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 411-436, May.
    17. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    18. Sander Wennekers & Roy Thurik & André Stel & Niels Noorderhaven, 2007. "Uncertainty avoidance and the rate of business ownership across 21 OECD countries, 1976–2004," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 17(2), pages 133-160, April.
    19. Murphy, Gregory B. & Trailer, Jeff W. & Hill, Robert C., 1996. "Measuring performance in entrepreneurship research," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 15-23, May.
    20. Hall, John & Hofer, Charles W., 1993. "Venture capitalists' decision criteria in new venture evaluation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 25-42, January.
    21. Tyzoon T. Tyebjee & Albert V. Bruno, 1984. "A Model of Venture Capitalist Investment Activity," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1051-1066, September.
    22. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
    23. Jay Ritter & Ivo Welch, 2002. "A Review of IPO Activity, Pricing, and Allocations," NBER Working Papers 8805, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Yasushi Hamao & Frank Packer & Jay Ritter, 1998. "Institutional affiliation and the role of venture capital: evidence from initial public offerings in Japan," Staff Reports 52, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    25. Salim Chahine & Igor Filatotchev & Mike Wright, 2007. "Venture Capitalists, Business Angels, and Performance of Entrepreneurial IPOs in the UK and France," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(3-4), pages 505-528.
    26. Dimov, Dimo & Shepherd, Dean A. & Sutcliffe, Kathleen M., 2007. "Requisite expertise, firm reputation, and status in venture capital investment allocation decisions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 481-502, July.
    27. Florin, Juan, 2005. "Is venture capital worth it? Effects on firm performance and founder returns," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 113-135, January.
    28. Amit, Raphael & Brander, James & Zott, Christoph, 1998. "Why do venture capital firms exist? theory and canadian evidence," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 441-466, November.
    29. Wang, Clement K. & Wang, Kangmao & Lu, Qing, 2003. "Effects of venture capitalists' participation in listed companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(10), pages 2015-2034, October.
    30. Sahlman, William A., 1990. "The structure and governance of venture-capital organizations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 473-521, October.
    31. Alon Brav & Paul A. Gompers, 2003. "The Role of Lockups in Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 1-29.
    32. Krishnan, C. N. V. & Ivanov, Vladimir I. & Masulis, Ronald W. & Singh, Ajai K., 2011. "Venture Capital Reputation, Post-IPO Performance, and Corporate Governance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(05), pages 1295-1333, November.
    33. Stephan Stubner & Torsten Wulf & Harald Hungenberg, 2007. "Management Support and the Performance of Entrepreneurial Start-ups - An Empirical Analysis of Newly Founded Companies in Germany," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 59(2), pages 138-159, April.
    34. Laura Bottazzi & Marco Da Rin, 2002. "Venture capital in Europe and the financing of innovative companies," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 17(34), pages 229-270, 04.
    35. Daily, Catherine M. & Certo, S. Trevis & Dalton, Dan R., 2005. "Investment bankers and IPO pricing: does prospectus information matter?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 93-111, January.
    36. Bradley, Daniel J. & Jordan, Bradford D., 2002. "Partial Adjustment to Public Information and IPO Underpricing," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 37(04), pages 595-616, December.
    37. James A. Brander & Raphael Amit & Werner Antweiler, 2002. "Venture-Capital Syndication: Improved Venture Selection vs. The Value-Added Hypothesis," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 11(3), pages 423-452, 09.
    38. Thomas Hellmann & Manju Puri, 2002. "Venture Capital and the Professionalization of Start-Up Firms: Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 169-197, 02.
    39. Megginson, William L & Weiss, Kathleen A, 1991. " Venture Capitalist Certification in Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 879-903, July.
    40. Mike Wright, 1998. "Venture Capital and Private Equity: A Review and Synthesis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5&6), pages 521-570.
    41. Keilbach, Max & Engel, Dirk, 2002. "Firm Level Implications of Early Stage Venture Capital Investment: An Empirical Investigation," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-82, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    42. Wolfgang Bessler & Andreas Kurth, 2007. "Agency Problems and the Performance of Venture-backed IPOs in Germany: Exit Strategies, Lock-up Periods, and Bank Ownership," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 29-63.
    43. Lee, Peggy M. & Wahal, Sunil, 2004. "Grandstanding, certification and the underpricing of venture capital backed IPOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 375-407, August.
    44. Arthurs, Jonathan D. & Busenitz, Lowell W. & Hoskisson, Robert E. & Johnson, Richard A., 2009. "Signaling and initial public offerings: The use and impact of the lockup period," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 360-372, July.
    45. Masulis, Ronald W. & Nahata, Rajarishi, 2011. "Venture Capital Conflicts of Interest: Evidence from Acquisitions of Venture-Backed Firms," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(02), pages 395-430, April.
    46. Markus M. M�kel� & Markku V. J. Maula, 2005. "Cross-border venture capital and new venture internationalization: An isomorphism perspective," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(3), pages 227-257, July.
    47. Williamson, Oliver E, 1973. "Markets and Hierarchies: Some Elementary Considerations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(2), pages 316-25, May.
    48. Michael Peneder, 2010. "The Impact of Venture Capital on Innovation Behaviour and Firm Growth," WIFO Working Papers 363, WIFO.
    49. Bill Francis & Iftekhar Hasan, 2001. "The Underpricing of Venture and Nonventure Capital IPOs: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 99-113, April.
    50. James W. Westerman & Scott W. Geiger & Linda A. Cyr, 2008. "Employee Equity Incentives And Venture Capitalist Involvement: Examining The Effects On Ipo Performance," Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship (JDE), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 13(04), pages 409-423.
    51. Susan Belden & Robert Keeley & Robert Knapp, 2001. "Can venture capital-backed IPOs compete with seasoned public companies?," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(4), pages 327-336, October.
    52. Lerner, Josh, 1995. " Venture Capitalists and the Oversight of Private Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(1), pages 301-18, March.
    53. Konan Chan & John W. Cooney & Joonghyuk Kim & Ajai K. Singh, 2008. "The IPO Derby: Are There Consistent Losers and Winners on This Track?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 37(1), pages 45-79, 03.
    54. Rosenbusch, Nina & Brinckmann, Jan & Bausch, Andreas, 2011. "Is innovation always beneficial? A meta-analysis of the relationship between innovation and performance in SMEs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 441-457, July.
    55. Mason, Colin M. & Harrison, Richard T., 2002. "Is it worth it? The rates of return from informal venture capital investments," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 211-236, May.
    56. Gompers, Paul A, 1995. " Optimal Investment, Monitoring, and the Staging of Venture Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1461-89, December.
    57. Macmillan, Ian C. & Kulow, David M. & Khoylian, Roubina, 1989. "Venture capitalists' involvement in their investments: Extent and performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 27-47, January.
    58. Christopher B. Barry, 1994. "New Directions in Research on Venture Capital Finance," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
    59. Jay B. Barney, 1986. "Strategic Factor Markets: Expectations, Luck, and Business Strategy," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(10), pages 1231-1241, October.
    60. Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike, 2001. "The syndication of venture capital investments," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 375-390, October.
    61. Hellmann, Thomas & Puri, Manju, 2000. "The Interaction between Product Market and Financing Strategy: The Role of Venture Capital," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(4), pages 959-84.
    62. Laura Lindsey, 2008. "Blurring Firm Boundaries: The Role of Venture Capital in Strategic Alliances," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(3), pages 1137-1168, 06.
    63. Brinckmann, Jan & Grichnik, Dietmar & Kapsa, Diana, 2010. "Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning-performance relationship in small firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 24-40, January.
    64. Higashide, Hironori & Birley, Sue, 2002. "The consequences of conflict between the venture capitalist and the entrepreneurial team in the United Kingdom from the perspective of the venture capitalist," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 59-81, January.
    65. Kenji Kutsuna & Marc Cowling & Paul Westhead, 2000. "The short-run performance of JASDAQ companies and venture capital involvement before and after flotation," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 1-25, January.
    66. da Silva Rosa, Ray & Velayuthen, Gerard & Walter, Terry, 2003. "The sharemarket performance of Australian venture capital-backed and non-venture capital-backed IPOs," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 197-218, April.
    67. Andrew L Zacharakis & Jeffery S McMullen & Dean A Shepherd, 2007. "Venture capitalists' decision policies across three countries: an institutional theory perspective," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(5), pages 691-708, September.
    68. Shepherd, Dean A. & Douglas, Evan J. & Shanley, Mark, 2000. "New venture survival: Ignorance, external shocks, and risk reduction strategies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 15(5-6), pages 393-410.
    69. Steven N. Kaplan & Per Stromberg, 2001. "Venture Capitalists As Principals: Contracting, Screening, and Monitoring," NBER Working Papers 8202, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    70. Busenitz, Lowell W. & Fiet, James O. & Moesel, Douglas D., 2004. "Reconsidering the venture capitalists' "value added" proposition: An interorganizational learning perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 787-807, November.
    71. Barney, Jay B. & Busenitz, Lowell W. & Fiet, James O. & Moesel, Douglas D., 1996. "New venture teams' assessment of learning assistance from venture capital firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 257-272, July.
    72. Masako Ueda, 2004. "Banks versus Venture Capital: Project Evaluation, Screening, and Expropriation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 601-621, 04.
    73. Lee, Sang M. & Peterson, Suzanne J., 2000. "Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 401-416, January.
    74. Nahata, Rajarishi, 2008. "Venture capital reputation and investment performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 127-151, November.
    75. Barry, Christopher B. & Muscarella, Chris J. & Peavy, John III & Vetsuypens, Michael R., 1990. "The role of venture capital in the creation of public companies*1: Evidence from the going-public process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 447-471, October.
    76. Demers, Elizabeth & Lewellen, Katharina, 2003. "The marketing role of IPOs: evidence from internet stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 413-437, June.
    77. Ranko Jelic & Brahim Saadouni & Mike Wright, 2005. "Performance of Private to Public MBOs: The Role of Venture Capital," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(3-4), pages 643-682.
    78. Gompers, Paul & Lerner, Josh, 1999. "An analysis of compensation in the U.S. venture capital partnership," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 3-44, January.
    79. Susanne Espenlaub & Ian Garrett & Wei Peng Mun, 1999. "Conflicts of interest and the performance of venture-capital-backed IPOs: A preliminary look at the UK," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(4), pages 325-349, October.
    80. Davidsson, Per & Steffens, Paul & Fitzsimmons, Jason, 2009. "Growing profitable or growing from profits: Putting the horse in front of the cart?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 388-406, July.
    81. Davila, Antonio & Foster, George & Gupta, Mahendra, 2003. "Venture capital financing and the growth of startup firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 689-708, November.
    82. Zahra, Shaker A., 1996. "Technology strategy and new venture performance: A study of corporate-sponsored and independent biotechnology ventures," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 289-321, July.
    83. F. M. Scherer & Dietmar Harhoff & J, rg Kukies, 2000. "Uncertainty and the size distribution of rewards from innovation," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 175-200.
    84. Dimov, Dimo P. & Shepherd, Dean A., 2005. "Human capital theory and venture capital firms: exploring "home runs" and "strike outs"," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 1-21, January.
    85. Sapienza, Harry J., 1992. "When do venture capitalists add value?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 9-27, January.
    86. Brav, Alon & Gompers, Paul A, 1997. " Myth or Reality? The Long-Run Underperformance of Initial Public Offerings: Evidence from Venture and Nonventure Capital-Backed Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1791-1821, December.
    87. John A. Doukas & Halit Gonenc, 2005. "Long-term Performance of New Equity Issuers, Venture Capital and Reputation of Investment Bankers," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 34(1), pages 1-34, 02.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbvent:v:28:y:2013:i:3:p:335-353. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.